Luxembourg

   

Executive Accountability

#5
Key Findings
With a strongly consensus-driven system, Luxembourg falls into the top ranks internationally (rank 5) in terms of executive accountability. Its score on this measure is unchanged relative to its 2014 level.

Parliamentarians have adequate resources, and formal oversight powers are strong. Gaps exist regarding scrutiny of the secret service. The low-profile Court of Auditors effectively reviews public spending. The Ombuds Office is a particularly useful instrument for non-citizen residents.

With 47% of residents being foreign nationals, there is strong unmet demand for political participation. Full social inclusion requires command of three national languages, with Luxembourgish particularly important in the political sphere. The media offers high-quality policy reporting, and newspapers have become less partisan over time.

Political parties demonstrate considerable internal democracy. The government is required to consult with economic associations, which have well-developed research units. Other interest groups are also influential, though have fewer resources.

Citizens’ Participatory Competence

#3

To what extent are citizens informed of government policymaking?

10
 9

Most citizens are well-informed of a broad range of government policies.
 8
 7
 6


Many citizens are well-informed of individual government policies.
 5
 4
 3


Few citizens are well-informed of government policies; most citizens have only a rudimental knowledge of policies.
 2
 1

Most citizens are not aware of government policies.
Policy Knowledge
8
Citizens are expected to have sufficient knowledge of the three official languages of Luxembourg to facilitate social inclusion. About 47% of residents are foreigners and multilingualism is the “compétence légitime” in Luxembourg. However, knowledge of Luxembourgish has an important role in political participation, as most political debates and information distribution takes place in this specific national language. This may make it more difficult for non-speakers to participate in the political sphere. Foreigners have expressed a distinct wish to participate more substantially in policy development. This interest in Luxembourg’s public life and political commitment depends on political empowerment and active participation in social life. Hence, not only voting rights but also the distribution of multilingual political information is extremely important in promoting active political participation and enabling influence in decision-making.

Citations:
Bilan de la participation électorale aux élections communales d’octobre 2011. Centre d’étude et de formation interculturelles et sociales, 2011. www.statistiques.public.lu/fr/actualites/conditions-sociales/politique/2013/05/20130130/presentationetudeCEFIS.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Europeans and their Languages. European Commission, 2012. ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Fetzer, Joel S. Luxembourg as an Immigration Success Story: The Grand Duchy in Pan-European Perspective. Lexington Books, 2011.

“Sprachenpolitik in der Großregion SaarLorLux.” Die Grossregion Saarlorlux: Anspruch, Wirklichkeiten, Perspektiven, edited by Wolfgang H. Lorig, Sascha Regolot, and Stefan Henn, Springer VS, 2016, pp. 73 – 94.

Stoldt, Jürgen. “Mehr Demokratie wagen?” Forum.lu, Nov. 2012, www.forum.lu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/7507_323_Stoldt.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Willems, Helmut. Bestimmungsfaktoren und Probleme der politischen Partizipation von Migranten. Université du Luxembourg, 2012. www.landtag.rlp.de/landtag/vorlagen/2-57-16.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Legislative Actors’ Resources

#12

Do members of parliament have adequate personnel and structural resources to monitor government activity effectively?

10
 9

The members of parliament as a group can draw on a set of resources suited for monitoring all government activity effectively.
 8
 7
 6


The members of parliament as a group can draw on a set of resources suited for monitoring a government’s major activities.
 5
 4
 3


The members of parliament as a group can draw on a set of resources suited for selectively monitoring some government activities.
 2
 1

The resources provided to the members of parliament are not suited for any effective monitoring of the government.
Parliamentary Resources
8
Luxembourg’s members of parliament (MPs) must balance a heavy workload with dual mandates and other professional activities, including municipal councils and/or professional employment. According to the regulations of the unicameral Chamber of Deputies, members can employ a personal assistant and recuperate some costs within the limits of eligible expenses. In practice, the parliamentary groups instead employ a pool of assistants who work for all the MPs of their group, rather than each MP having his or her own assistant. MPs can consult with external experts as part of the functioning of parliamentary commissions. In addition, they have access to a central state computer system to review databases, surveys, reports, agendas and other important information.

Citations:
Règlement de la Chambre des Députés du 6.12.2012

Reimen, Frank, and Jeannot Krecké. Die Abgeordnetenkammer: Theorie und Praxis parlamentarischer Kontrolle. Passerelle, 1999

Are parliamentary committees able to ask for government documents?

10
 9

Parliamentary committees may ask for most or all government documents; they are normally delivered in full and within an appropriate time frame.
 8
 7
 6


The rights of parliamentary committees to ask for government documents are slightly limited; some important documents are not delivered or are delivered incomplete or arrive too late to enable the committee to react appropriately.
 5
 4
 3


The rights of parliamentary committees to ask for government documents are considerably limited; most important documents are not delivered or delivered incomplete or arrive too late to enable the committee to react appropriately.
 2
 1

Parliamentary committees may not ask for government documents.
Obtaining Documents
8
In general, information flows freely between the government and coalition parties. In the cases where such flows are seen as incomplete, parliamentary queries (questions parlementaires) are a popular and effective way for members of parliament to obtain information from the government or to gain insight into specific topics. Furthermore, the prerogative to conduct parliamentary inquiries (enquête parlementaire), according to Article 64 (in conjunction with Article 70) of the constitution, gives the parliament oversight power over the government. Since 1980, the parliament has established four committees of inquiry (in 1980, 1989, 2003 and 2012).

There is no deliberate withholding of information within the parliament itself, as the opposition parties of today may be tomorrow’s coalition partner. However, a few restrictions exist concerning sensitive issues or classified information. For instance, this has been the case with the scandals over the state’s secret service (Service de renseignement de l’Etat luxembourgeois, SREL). The Parliamentary Oversight Commission for the State Secret Service (Commission de Contrôle parlementaire du Service de Renseignement de l’Etat) oversees the functioning of the SREL on behalf of the Chamber of Deputies.

Citations:
Everything you need to know about the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Information and Press Service of the Luxembourg Government, 2015. www.luxembourg.public.lu/fr/publications/c/tout-savoir/Tout-savoir-2015-EN.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Kirps, Josée. “La passion du secret.” Forum.lu, Feb. 2014, www.forum.lu/pdf/artikel/7796_337_Kirps.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport de la Commission d’enquête sur le Service de Renseignement de l’Etat. La commission d’enquête sur le Service de renseignement de l’Etat luxembourgeois, 2013. cbiver.eu/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/123656.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Urbany, Serge. “Nach der Gangsterjagd.” Forum.lu, Mar. 2013, www.forum.lu/pdf/artikel/7582_327_Urbany.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Are parliamentary committees able to summon ministers for hearings?

10
 9

Parliamentary committees may summon ministers. Ministers regularly follow invitations and are obliged to answer questions.
 8
 7
 6


The rights of parliamentary committees to summon ministers are slightly limited; ministers occasionally refuse to follow invitations or to answer questions.
 5
 4
 3


The rights of parliamentary committees to summon ministers are considerably limited; ministers frequently refuse to follow invitations or to answer questions.
 2
 1

Parliamentary committees may not summon ministers.
Summoning Ministers
9
Interaction between the executive and the parliament is generally straightforward. Every member of parliament (MP) can introduce parliamentary questions (both written and oral) to ministers. Questions are addressed to the parliamentary president. Within one month, the responsible ministers have to respond and deliver more or less detailed information about policy decisions or activities of their departments. Questions and answers are fully published on the Chamber of Deputies’ website. On Tuesdays, when the parliament convenes, there may be a lively question and answer session, covering a broad range of relevant issues posted by opposition parties.

In the 2014 to 2015 parliamentary year, 887 questions were submitted, an increase from 611 questions in the previous parliamentary year. In addition to the unrestricted exercise of parliamentary questions, informal exchanges between ministers and MPs are frequent. In the last 30 years, only four investigative parliamentary committees were put in place. In this case, parliament enjoys extensive rights, comparable to those of an investigating judge.

Citations:
Lijphart, Arend. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-six Countries. Yale University Press, 2012.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministère d’État, 2016. www.gouvernement.lu/5870220/2015-rapport-activite-etat.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Are parliamentary committees able to summon experts for committee meetings?

10
 9

Parliamentary committees may summon experts.
 8
 7
 6


The rights of parliamentary committees to summon experts are slightly limited.
 5
 4
 3


The rights of parliamentary committees to summon experts are considerably limited.
 2
 1

Parliamentary committees may not summon experts.
Summoning Experts
9
Consultation with experts and representatives of interest groups, regularly takes place in the course of various ongoing commission work. Domestic and foreign experts, as well as other lobbyists and concerned groups in civil society, may be invited to participate in commission meetings. Under particular circumstances of public interest, experts are invited to parliament to introduce subjects and to offer professional opinions.

In the case of important policy reform projects, the government usually asks for advice from reputable foreign institutes, being aware of the limited knowledge within the country. For example, a German and a Swiss institute were consulted over psychiatry reforms in health care. Such policy projects are implemented by a specific parliamentary commission and a budget allowance was made available to support outsourced inquiries. Innovation is often driven by foreign expertise and reports, which overcomes domestic resistance.
For instance, in April 2014, OECD experts invited by the parliament’s Commission on Higher Education, Research, Media and Communications were asked to provide a new report reviewing innovation policy. This OECD report, published in April 2015, recommends a new strategy involving both diversification and consolidation.

Citations:
“Mémorial A n° 227 de 2014.” Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 11 Dec. 2014, legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/memorial/2014/227. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministère d’État, 2016. www.gouvernement.lu/5870220/2015-rapport-activite-etat.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Are the task areas and structures of parliamentary committees suited to monitor ministries effectively?

10
 9

The match between the task areas of parliamentary committees and ministries as well as other relevant committee structures are well-suited to the effective monitoring of ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The match/mismatch between the task areas of parliamentary committees and ministries as well as other relevant committee structures are largely suited to the monitoring ministries.
 5
 4
 3


The match/mismatch between the task areas of parliamentary committees and ministries as well as other relevant committee structures are partially suited to the monitoring of ministries.
 2
 1

The match/mismatch between the task areas of parliamentary committees and ministries as well as other relevant committee structures are not at all suited to the monitoring of ministries.
Task Area Congruence
8
Parliamentary committees and ministries are well coordinated and parliamentary monitoring is satisfactory. Ministers appear regularly before committees and communication is adequate. Although the number of ministries has grown over the years, reaching 20 ministries and 15 ministers, the number of parliamentarians has still not increased beyond 60 members. Each committee has up to 13 members. As such, their workload has expanded considerably in recent years, which has made running standing committees more challenging. In general, MPs are often members of more than one committee.

Citations:
Better Regulation in Europe: Luxembourg. OECD, 2010. www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy/46592016.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Ministres.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, www.gouvernement.lu/3596522/20140328-. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

To what extent is the audit office accountable to the parliament?

10
 9

The audit office is accountable to the parliament exclusively.
 8
 7
 6


The audit office is accountable primarily to the parliament.
 5
 4
 3


The audit office is not accountable to the parliament, but has to report regularly to the parliament.
 2
 1

The audit office is governed by the executive.
Audit Office
9
The Chamber of Auditors was upgraded in 1999 to become the Court of Auditors which manages the finances of the state administration. While keeping a low profile, the court effectively controls government spending, including that of ministries, public administration and other state services. It can audit the use of public funds and subsidies granted to public and private entities. The court essentially controls the effectiveness and efficiency of public spending, yet it is not authorized to express its opinion on the political wisdom of public spending. Its scrutiny completes the ongoing work done by internal auditors in each ministry. Furthermore, the court’s main interlocutor is parliament and undertakes cases voluntarily or by parliamentary instruction.

Citations:
Annual reports and special reports are available at:

“Rapports.” Cour des comptes du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, www.cour-des-comptes.lu/rapports/index.html. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Does the parliament have an ombuds office?

10
 9

The parliament has an effective ombuds office.
 8
 7
 6


The parliament has an ombuds office, but its advocacy role is slightly limited.
 5
 4
 3


The parliament has an ombuds office, but its advocacy role is considerably limited.
 2
 1

The parliament does not have an ombuds office.
Ombuds Office
9
Since the launch of the Ombuds Office in May 2004, residents have sought guidance from this government office. The service is typically used more by foreigners rather than nationals. In 2015, the ombudsman dealt with 743 requests. Similar to other ombuds offices, the ombudsman can issue recommendations to government and parliament, but cannot take issues to court. In addition, the ombudsman is responsible to the parliament. The first ombudsman of Luxembourg, Marc Fischbach, was a former minister and a former judge at the Human Rights Court of the Council of Europe.

Luxembourg nationals have plenty of recourse when problems with the government administration arise, but the situation is not as simple for foreigners. Even though the country’s labor market is the most transnational in the European Union, there are still numerous obstacles for Luxembourg migrants. Thus, the ombudsman has for years dealt with a number of migration issues.

Among the existing institutions that offer ombuds services (the Ombuds Office, the office for children’s rights, the office for equality rights (based on EU directives 2000/43 and 2000/78) and the Human Rights Commission), the Ombuds Office is best equipped in terms of budget and staff and is most frequently used. The office has a good track record of finding solutions to problems, has issued a number of recommendations and monitors the implementation of the office’s recommendations. One of the reasons for the office’s success might be the preference of citizens to use mediation, instead of contention, a typical occurrence in societies with a strong tradition of consensus. Since February 2012, former Member of Parliament and Secretary of State Lydie Err has assumed the role of ombudsman.

Citations:
Médiateur. Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2003. www.ombudsman.lu/doc/doc_loi_31.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Rapports annuels.” Ombudsman, www.ombudsman.lu/rapport_annuel. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Media

#3

To what extent do media provide substantive in-depth information on decision-making by the government?

10
 9

A clear majority of mass media brands focus on high-quality information content analyzing government decisions.
 8
 7
 6


About one-half of the mass media brands focus on high-quality information content analyzing government decisions. The rest produces a mix of infotainment and quality information content.
 5
 4
 3


A clear minority of mass media brands focuses on high-quality information content analyzing government decisions. Several mass media brands produce superficial infotainment content only.
 2
 1

All mass media brands are dominated by superficial infotainment content.
Media Reporting
7
Luxembourg’s media outlets offer quality reporting on public affairs. All parliamentary debates are conducted in Luxembourgish and in public. Parliamentary meetings are broadcasted on Chamber TV (also available online) and debates of the country’s four largest local councils (Luxembourg City and Esch/ Alzette, Differdange, Dudelange) can be followed online. Furthermore, the Ministers’ weekly public press briefings are given more importance than under the previous administration.

In daily and weekly papers, articles are written in the three official languages (Luxembourgish, French and German) and sometimes in English as well. Certain newspapers are printed only in French; although an English-language monthly journal is also published. Moreover, the government is reforming the press subsidy system to include online media in recognition of the shifting media landscape.
Media coverage is often reactive, when issues have already reached the public in the form of draft legislation or through parliamentary debate. Furthermore, media outlets are quite often used as instruments by interest groups or lobbyists seeking to influence government decision-making in its early stages. Such procedures often have a strong influence on government thinking, as political actors need to take into account views and opinions that are published in the media. In addition, since the 2013 general election, social media has become more important due to the increasing number of social media users, and potential for disseminating information easily and rapidly.

Reporting has lost some of its partisan bias. Most media outlets, especially newspapers, have adopted more balanced reporting to preserve or enlarge their audience. The media does play an important role in uncovering information behind government scandals or issues. One example is the extensive media coverage of the so-called Bommeleer affair (a series of bombings of public infrastructure in the 1980s) that was finally brought to court. Allegations of dubious activities of the State Secret Service (SREL) also received extensive media coverage and were subsequently the subject of a special parliamentary inquiry. In these two events, media outlets played an crucial role in bringing light to issues that were not made clear by public prosecutors.

Citations:
“Das Bommeleeër-Dossier.” Luxemburger Wort, www.wort.lu/de/lokales/das-bommeleeer-dossier-5092c3a9e4b0fe37043e8be8. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Esch.tv, esch.tv. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Hilgert, Romain. “Unter dem Tresen des CSV-Staats.” Land.lu, 26 Apr. 2013, www.land.lu/2013/04/26/unter-dem-tresen-des-csv-staats /. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Länderporträt Luxemburg.” Mediandatenbank, www.mediadb.eu/de/europa/luxemburg.html. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Parties and Interest Associations

#5

How inclusive and open are the major parties in their internal decision-making processes?

10
 9

The party allows all party members and supporters to participate in its decisions on the most important personnel and issues. Lists of candidates and agendas of issues are open.
 8
 7
 6


The party restricts decision-making to party members. In most cases, all party members have the opportunity to participate in decisions on the most important personnel and issues. Lists of candidates and agendas of issues are rather open.
 5
 4
 3


The party restricts decision-making to party members. In most cases, a number of elected delegates participate in decisions on the most important personnel and issues. Lists of candidates and agendas of issues are largely controlled by the party leadership.
 2
 1

A number of party leaders participate in decisions on the most important personnel and issues. Lists of candidates and agendas of issues are fully controlled and drafted by the party leadership.
Intra-party Democracy
8
Inner-party democracy has different levels of intensity within the four major political parties Christian Social People’s (CSV), Democratic Party (DP), Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party (LSAP) and Déi Gréng. The CSV has used its current oppositional role to pursue an internal modernization process while remaining faithful to its core principles. The party is engaging in internal structural reforms, while seeking to integrate more individual members and opinions into the process. However, since the end of 2013, a small group of CSV politicians known as the “Dräikinneksgrupp” has demanded an even stronger reorientation. This group has focused on strengthening internal dialogue and moving toward a grassroots democracy and has called for a new culture of participation. The CSV adopted new internal governance statutes in December 2015.
The social democratic LSAP has expressed a clear determination to deepen its grassroots approach in the future. Internal party democracy for the liberal DP is limited by the power of a board of directors (“Comité directeur”), which makes most of the crucial decisions. Déi Gréng recently avowed a clear commitment to its grassroots movement, a principle it has followed since the party’s foundation. At its convention in 2009, a majority of party members rejected a proposal to create a board of directors.

Citations:
Bumb, Christoph. “Die Rebellen, die keine sein wollen.” Luxemburger Wort, 12 Jan. 2015, www.wort.lu/de/politik/die-csv-zwischen-kritik-und-reform-die-rebellen-die-keine-sein-wollen-54b305830c88b46a8ce5138d. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

—. “Weg vom Image der “Staatspartei”.” Luxemburger Wort, 8 Jan. 2015, www.wort.lu/de/politik/csv-auf-internem-reformkurs-weg-vom-image-der-staatspartei-54aea1440c88b46a8ce50af8. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“CSV vows fresh start for new year.” Luxemburger Wort, 9 Jan. 2015, www.wort.lu/en/politics/winning-back-support-csv-vows-fresh-start-for-new-year-54af81ab0c88b46a8ce50ff3. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Die Basis hatte ein Wörtchen mitzureden.” Luxemburger Wort, 15 Mar. 2012, www.wort.lu/de/lokales/die-basis-hatte-ein-woertchen-mitzureden-4f61e50ae4b0860580ab7084. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Hilgert, Romain. “Der linke Flügel der LSAP.” Land.lu, 19 May 2011, www.land.lu/2011/05/19/der-linke-flugel-der-lsap/. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Ismayr, Wolfgang. “Das politische System Luxemburgs.” Die politischen Systeme Westeuropas, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2003, pp. 415 – 444.

“LSAP-Präsidium strebt neues Mandat an.” LSAP, 16 Mar. 2016, www.lsap.lu/lsap-prasidium-strebt-neues-mandat-an/. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“No “radical renewal” for the CSV.” Luxemburger Wort, 16 Feb. 2014, www.wort.lu/en/luxembourg/no-radical-renewal-for-the-csv-5300d522e4b0f989a09f27d4. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Schumacher, Dani. “Die Partei und der Premier.” Luxemburger Wort, 12 Oct. 2012, www.wort.lu/de/politik/eine-analyse-ueber-den-ist-zustand-bei-der-dp-die-partei-und-der-premier-54380a37b9b39887080751fe. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Stoldt, Jürgen. “Welche Zukunft für die Volksparteien?” Forum.lu, Feb. 2015, www.forum.lu/pdf/artikel/8035_348_Stoldt.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Trausch, Gilbert. CSV: Spiegelbild Eines Landes Und Seiner Politik?: Geschichte der Christlich-Sozialen Volkspartei Luxemburgs im 20. Jahrhundert. Saint-Paul Luxembourg, 2008.

To what extent are economic interest associations capable of formulating relevant policies?

10
 9

Most interest associations are highly capable of formulating relevant policies.
 8
 7
 6


Many interest associations are highly capable of formulating relevant policies.
 5
 4
 3


Few interest associations are highly capable of formulating relevant policies.
 2
 1

Most interest associations are not capable of formulating relevant policies.
Association Competence (Business)
8
Given Luxembourg’s specific social partnership model, the government in general consults with unions, employers’ organizations and professional chambers over each draft bill. Furthermore, all opinions, as well as the modified draft bills, are published on the parliament’s website. The two employers’ organizations (the Chambre de Commerce and the Chambre des Métiers), as well as the Luxembourg business union (Union des Entreprises Luxembourgeoises, UEL) support a research unit, enabling them to produce opinions on draft bills, to organize conferences and to draft future government bills.

Trade unions share this approach. The impact of trade unions increased as a result of the Parliamentary Act of 15 May 2008 (“statut unique”), which created just a single employees’ union (Chambre des Salariés) in place of the previous two (one for manual workers and one for white-collar workers). All citizens working in Luxembourg, except public servants, are automatically members and contribute to this organization – a keystone of Luxembourg’s neo-corporatist policy tradition. Both social partners commission expert advice and policy briefings either abroad or in Luxembourg, and both prepare position papers on the basis of their own resources.

Citations:
Chambre de Commerce Luxembourg, www.cc.lu. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Chambre des Salariés Luxembourg, www.csl.lu. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“L’UEL lance son nouveau site «Compétitivité - Tableau de bord».” Union des Entreprises Luxembourgeoises, www.uel.lu/445-l-uel-lance-son-nouveau-site-competitivite-tableau-de-bord. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Mémorial A n° 60 de 2008.” Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 15 May 2008, legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/memorial/2008/60#page=2. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

To what extent are non-economic interest associations capable of formulating relevant policies?

10
 9

Most interest associations are highly capable of formulating relevant policies.
 8
 7
 6


Many interest associations are highly capable of formulating relevant policies.
 5
 4
 3


Few interest associations are highly capable of formulating relevant policies.
 2
 1

Most interest associations are not capable of formulating relevant policies.
Association Competence (Others)
8
Interest groups have and can have an important impact on policymaking. However, drawing on academic knowledge within Luxembourg is limited. Some larger non-governmental organizations maintain small research departments and propagate their opinions through publications (Caritas, Mouvement Écologique, CEFIS, SOLEP, etc.) and conferences, by offering comments on draft bills, or by proposing policies. Voluntary working groups that act essentially as think tanks, have become more popular during the review period and many have chosen the future of Luxembourg as their focus; these groups include La Société Luxembourgeoise de l’Evaluation et de la Prospective (SOLEP), Luxembourg 2030, and 5 vir 12.
These groups have considerable impact, considering the government’s practice of consulting all social partners and the overall small size of Luxembourg. However, they make little use of academic resources.

Citations:
2030.lu, www.2030.lu/en/home/. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Centre d’étude et de formation interculturelles et sociales, www.cefis.lu. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Luxemburg.” Verbände und Interessengruppen in den Ländern der Europäischen Union, edited by Werner Reutter, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2012, pp. 417 – 444.

Mouvement Ecologique, www.meco.lu/de/. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Société Luxembourgeoise de l’Evaluation et de la Prospective, www.solep.lu. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Sozialalmanach.” Caritas.lu, www.caritas.lu/Ce-que-nous-disons/Sozialalmanach. Accessed 7 Feb. 2017.
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