Electoral Processes

   

To what extent do all citizens have the opportunity to exercise their right of participation in national elections?

EUOECD
 
All adult citizens can participate in national elections. All eligible voters are registered if they wish to be. There are no discriminations observable in the exercise of the right to vote. There are no disincentives to voting.
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Australia
No changes to voting rights occurred in the review period. Registration on the electoral roll and voting are compulsory for all Australian citizens aged 18 years and over, although compliance is somewhat less than 100%, particularly among young people. Prisoners serving terms of three years or more are not entitled to vote in federal elections until after their release, but all other adult citizens can participate in federal elections and there is no evidence that any person has been prevented from voting.
Estonia
The Estonian constitution and relevant laws guarantee universal suffrage. The voting age is 18 for national and European elections, and 16 for municipal elections. About 6% of the population (or 16% of the voting-age population) are non-citizens who cannot vote in parliamentary elections, but have the right to vote in local elections. EU citizens residing in Estonia can vote in municipal and European Parliament elections. Estonian citizens residing abroad (about 10% of the electorate) can vote in all Estonian elections.

The state authorities maintain the voter register based on the population-register data. Eligible voters need to take no action to be included in the voter register. Each registered voter is informed by post or e-mail about all voting options, including the voting day, the location and opening hours of his/her polling station.

To facilitate participation in elections, Estonia uses advanced-voting, home-voting and Internet-voting systems. In the 2017 municipal elections, 31.6% of participating voters voted online.

Ethnic minorities’ modest degree of engagement in election processes has been a longstanding issue of concern. To tackle the problem, state authorities are providing more voting information in Russian. The National Electoral Committee (NEC) website now offers election information in three languages (Estonian, Russian and English). Additionally, tools for disabled persons have been added to the website.
Citations:
https://www.valimised.ee/en
Finland
Electoral provisions stipulate universal suffrage for all adult Finnish citizens, a secret-ballot voting method, a minimum voting age of 18, non-compulsory voting, an entitlement to vote for expatriated Finnish citizens, and the exclusion of non-Finnish nationals resident in Finland from national elections. However, non-Finnish permanent residents may vote in municipal elections. The population registration center maintains a register of persons eligible to vote, and sends a notification to those included in the register. Citizens do not need to register separately to be able to vote. A system of advance voting has been in place for several decades now, and the proportion of ballots cast in advance has risen significantly. Electronic voting was tested during the 2008 municipal elections, but has not been adopted in subsequent elections. However, the government has declared internet-based voting methods as a policy objective.
Citations:
Dag Anckar and Carsten Anckar, “Finland”, in Dieter Nohlen and Philip Stöver, eds. Elections in Europe. A Data Handbook, Nomos, 2010.
Germany
German citizens (Basic Law, Art. 116 sec. 1) aged 18 or older are eligible to vote and run for election to the Bundestag, provided that they have resided in Germany for at least three months (Federal Electoral Act, sections 12.1, 15). By judicial order, the right to vote can be denied to criminals, persons lacking legal capacity and convicts residing in a psychiatric hospital (Federal Electoral Act, sec.13). Prior to an election, every registered citizen receives a notification containing information on how to cast a vote as well as an application form for postal voting. Today, postal voting is widely used, largely without issue (according to the Federal Returning Officer, in the last general election 24.3% of registered voters voted by mail). Citizens not included in the civil registry (e.g., homeless people) are eligible to vote but have to apply to authorities in order to be registered.

After the Federal Constitutional Court declared some provisions regarding the voting rights of Germans living abroad to be unconstitutional, a new amendment on the issue was drafted and passed in May 2013. Today, Germans living abroad have the right to vote (Federal Electoral Act, sec. 12) if they have lived at least three months in Germany after their fifteenth birthday and have not lived more than 25 years abroad without interruption. Those who do not fulfill these requirements are still eligible to cast their vote if they can verify that they are both familiar with and affected by German political conditions. Germans living abroad have to register to vote with the authorities of their last domestic residence at least 21 days before the election. They can then cast their vote by mail (cf. Federal Elections Act sections 36, 39 and Federal Electoral Regulations).

During the period under review, there were several state elections (Saarland, Schleswig-Holstein, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony), as well as the federal election (Bundestagswahl). As in previous elections, no major irregularities or complaints about voter registration, voter lists or postal voting were reported.
Citations:
Postal ballot: Information provided by the Federal Returning Officer
http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/de/glossar/texte/Briefwahl.html

Federal Elections Act (BWG) Sections 36, 39
Federal Electoral Regulations (BWO) Sections 20, 25 to 31, 66, 74, 75
Greece
Voting in Greece is mandatory by law. However, it is rarely enforced. In July 2016, the Greek parliament voted to lower the minimum voting age to 17 years. There is no discrimination in the exercise of the right to vote nor any disincentives for voting. Upon being born, Greeks are registered in the municipality where their family resides. These records serve as lists of citizens eligible to vote. There is, however, a need to clean these records to remove persons who are deceased or have permanently migrated to other countries. Thus, today, records include names of voters who will never turn out to vote. The result is that turnout in elections is calculated on a sum total of voters which is probably higher than the actual number of eligible voters.
Citations:
http://aceproject.org/epic-en/countries/CDCountry?country=GR [accessed on 11.05.2013]
Iceland
Iceland’s voting procedure is unrestricted. If an individual is registered as a voter within a constituency, he or she only has to present personal identification to cast a vote. Every person 18 years or older has the right to vote.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s electoral process is inclusive. The voting age was lowered from 21 to 20, and then again to 18 in 1974. In March 2017, the Children’s Commissioner suggested following countries such as Scotland by lowering the voting age to 16. It failed to win any significant public support. Permanent residents of 12 months standing are given the right to vote in national elections. For those who move offshore, they remain eligible to vote, providing they return home every twelve months. Citizens who live elsewhere retain their eligibility for three years. While it is compulsory to register to vote, the act of voting is voluntary (despite facing a potential fine, a growing number of young voters choose not to register). Indigenous Maori may register to vote on either the Maori electoral roll or the general roll. There are seven designated Maori seats in the current legislature. Additional Maori representatives are elected on the general roll. Electoral boundaries are redistributed every five years. Beyond legal regulations, there are focused and ongoing activities, especially by the Electoral Commission, to increase political efficacy and turnout by ethnic minorities, those with disabilities, as well as young voters. In 2014, it announced plans to implement a phone dictation voting service for blind voters and those with physical disabilities that prevent them from marking their voting paper independently and in secret. Whereas electoral turnout in the postwar period tended to fluctuate between 85% and 91%, in 2014, turnout has increased for the first time since 2005, with some 78% of registered voters participating in the 2014 election, many of them by voting early. This positive trend continued with turnout for the 2017 election reaching 79.8%. Registering for an election can be done electronically. Registered voters then receive an “easy vote” pack with further voting information.
Citations:
Access 2011: Accessibility Action Plan for the 2011 General Election and Referendum on the
Voting System (Wellington: Electoral Commission 2011).
Annual Report of the Electoral Commission for the year ended 30 June 2012 (Wellington: Electoral Commission 2012), pp. 8-9.
http://www.elections.org.nz/voters/voting-election/easyvote-cards-make-it-easy (accessed October 8, 2014).
Access 2013: General Elections 1853-2011, Dates and Turnout, http://www.elections.org.nz/events/past-events-0/general-elections-1853-2011-dates-and-turnout (Wellington: Electoral Commission 2013).
Voter turnout, http://www.elections.org.nz/events/2017-general-election/2017-general-election-results/voter-turnout-statistics (accessed January 16, 2018).
Children’s Commissioner wants to lower voting age to 16 in New Zealand. New Zealand Herald. 6 March 2017.
Electoral Commission, 2014. Party Secretary Handbook. General Elections, http://www.elections.org.nz/party-secretary-handbook, (last accessed 6 October 2014).
Raymond Miller, Democracy in New Zealand, Auckland, Auckland University Press, 2015, chapters 1, 5 and 9.
Norway
All Norwegian citizens who are 18 years old or older have the right to vote in parliamentary elections. In local elections, permanent residents who have resided in Norway for at least five years have the right to vote. There is no requirement of prior registration. Each eligible citizen receives a voting card sent by mail. It is possible to vote before the election through the post or at specific locations, including at Norwegian embassies abroad. There has been no allegation from any political party that the electoral process is not inclusive. Election turnout is high and discrimination is rarely reported. Young voters “learn” voting behavior in schools by participating in a school vote prior to reaching the age of voting eligibility. Some municipalities have experimented with a voting age of 16 in local elections.
Poland
The 2011 election code made voting rights more transparent by consolidating provisions for different election levels into a single law. Almost all adult citizens in Poland have the right to vote. While there is no blanket disenfranchisement of convicts or individuals who have been declared incapacitated, existing provisions are not fully in line with the rulings of the European Court of Human Rights. As Polish citizens are automatically registered to vote, there is no need for prior registration before elections. Since August 2014, all citizens, not only the disabled and those living abroad, have been able to vote by mail. In the November 2014 local elections, an information-technology failure led to delays in the reporting of the election results. While an expert commission did not find any evidence of voting-fraud, a series of technical problems might have contributed to moderate bias in the electoral outcome. The 2015 presidential and parliamentary elections went more smoothly.
Citations:
OSCE/ODIHR (2016): Election Assessment Mission Final Report Poland: Parliamentary Elections 25 October 2015, Warsaw, 6-8 (http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/poland/217961?download=true).
Slovenia
The electoral process is largely inclusive at both national and local levels. All adult citizens, including convicted prisoners, can participate in elections and no cases of voting irregularities have occurred in the period under review. Voters that will not be in their place of residence on election day can ask for a special voter’s pass that allows voting at any polling station in the country. While no general postal vote exists, Slovenian citizens who live abroad as well citizens unable to make it to the polling stations for health reasons or because of disabilities can exercise their voting rights by mail. In the case of the 2017 presidential elections, however, only 13 persons with disabilities made use of the new possibility to register for postal voting. In another attempt at making voting more inclusive, a 2017 amendment to the electoral code called for making all polling stations accessible for persons with disabilities. However, this requirement will only take effect on February 1, 2018 and thus did not apply in the presidential election in October 2017. One Slovenian peculiarity are the special voting rights for the Hungarian and Italian minorities and the Roma population. Members of the Hungarian and Italian minorities can cast an additional vote for a member of parliament representing each minority in the national parliament. In the case of local elections, a similar provision exists for the Roma population in all municipalities with a substantial Roma minority.
Citations:
OSCE/ OHDIR (2017): Republic of Slovenia: Presidential Election, 22 October 2017. Election Expert Team, Final Report. Warsaw (https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/slovenia/363561?download=true).
Sweden
The Swedish electoral system meets the highest requirements in terms of eligibility, transparency and the basic right to participate. There are no legal obstacles to anyone who wants to run in an election. Political parties conduct candidate selection without any interference from the state, and the media closely monitor the parties during the selection process. Electoral turnout has always been high and increased in the 2006 and 2010 general elections, reaching almost 85% and indeed surpassing that level in the 2014 general elections.
Citations:
Valmyndigheten (http://www.val.se/).
Switzerland
Formal procedures and rules in the area of voting and registration rights are those of a model democracy. However, there are at least two problems.

The first relates to the proportional voting system for elections. Small parties from small electoral districts successfully claimed before the Federal Court that they have effectively no chance of winning one of the very few seats allotted to these districts. The court then ruled that every citizen must have the same influence on elections. Therefore, the size of districts must be designed in such a way that there are at least 10 seats at stake, thus giving small political parties a real chance to win a seat. Several cantons affected by the ruling reorganized their electoral system and districts accordingly. However, the court’s decision is not very coherent. It forces the cantons to guarantee that voters within a canton will have an equal degree of influence, but accepts that federalism leads to much more significant inequalities of influence at the national level.

This leads to the second challenge. It is certainly true that the decentralized federal structure of Switzerland as a multicultural country gives some citizens much more electoral influence than others. This is particularly true of representation within the Council of States (Ständerat), the country’s second parliamentary chamber (which is modeled after the U.S. Senate). Each canton is entitled to two representatives. The Council of States has the same power as the National Council (Nationalrat), while the size of cantons varies by as much as a factor of 36. This means that a citizen of the canton of Zürich, which has 36 times more inhabitants than the canton of Uri, has considerably less political power than one of Uri. This overrepresentation of small cantons has real effect within the bicameral parliament’s legislative process. Historically, these strongly protected minority rights are traceable to the denominational conflicts of the 19th century. However, one can argue that this denominational definition of minority status no longer holds importance. This would mean that the strong overrepresentation of small cantons should somehow be modified. So far, all parliamentary initiatives aiming at such a reform have failed.
Netherlands
Contrary to other civil rights, the right to vote in national, provincial or water board elections is restricted to citizens with Dutch nationality of 18 years and older (as of election day). For local elections, voting rights apply to all registered as legal residents for at least five years and to all EU nationals residing in the Netherlands. Convicts have the right to vote by authorization only; as part of their conviction, some may be denied voting rights for two to five years over and above their prison terms. Since the elections in 2010, each voter is obliged to show a legally approved ID in addition to a voting card. Legally approved IDs are a (non-expired) passport or drivers’ license.
Citations:
art J24 Kieswet: http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0004627/AfdelingII/HoofdstukJ/6/ArtikelJ24/geldigheidsdatum_24-05-2013

art 1 Wet op Indentificatieplicht:
http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0006297/geldigheidsdatum_24-05-2013#HoofdstukI_Artikel1
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Austria
Voter registration and voting rights are well protected. Registration is a simple process, taking place simultaneously with the registration of a residence. Citizens must be at least 16 to vote. The country has made efforts to allow non-resident citizens to vote from overseas.

The relative difficulty in obtaining citizenship, and thus voting rights, represents a more problematic aspect of the political culture. According to some mainstream interpretations of democracy (e.g., following Robert Dahl), all legal residents should have the right to vote and therefore the right to citizenship. However, Austria’s system does not provide most long-term residents with a simple means of obtaining naturalization and voting rights.

The presidential elections of 2016 led to a debate about the handling of absentee voting. The accommodating means of handling the absentee voting creates a discussion about mixing politics and legal principles: The permissive access to absentee voting is in the interest of specific social segments and therefore of specific parties (like the Greens) – and against the interest of others (like the FPÖ). This could lead, in the long run, to a conflict of interests, disguised as a conflict of principles. Nevertheless, at the moment it doesn’t seem that any significant change will take place.
Belgium
Voting is compulsory in Belgium, and all resident Belgian citizens are automatically registered to vote. Non-Belgian residents and Belgian nationals living abroad must register on a voluntary basis.

There are two marginal limitations in terms of the proportion of voters concerned. In some municipalities with “linguistic facilities” around Brussels (i.e., situated in Flanders, but with a significant proportion of French-speaking voters), voters may not receive voting documents in their native language. The situation is usually handled quite pragmatically, but in 2015 this led to the prolongation of a stalemate in one “commune à facilités/ faciliteitengemeente” in the Flemish periphery of Brussels. In this municipality of Linkebeek, no arrangement could be found for the (Francophone) mayor to be officially installed by the (Flemish) regional authorities, although he and his list had captured a broad majority of the (largely francophone) vote.

The fact that compulsory voting is not extended to Belgian nationals living abroad means that their actual degree of representation is lower than that of regular voters.
Czech Rep.
All adult citizens, including convicted prisoners, can participate in national elections, and voter registration is relatively straightforward. However, while special provisions for a mobile ballot box facilitate voting for the disabled and seriously ill, there is no general ability to vote by mail. Czech citizens residing abroad can vote at Czech embassies and consulates. For them, participation in elections is complicated by a special deadline for registration and the limited number of embassies and consulates. No cases of vote-buying were reported in the 2017 parliamentary elections. Errors in vote counting in central Bohemia led to the first recount in the history of the Czech Republic. In November 2017, the Supreme Administrative Court ordered a recount in 915 electoral districts.
Denmark
According to section 31 of the Danish constitution, “The members of the Folketinget shall be elected by general and direct ballot.” More specific rules are laid down in the election act. The election act stipulates that “franchise for the Folketinget is held by every person of Danish nationality, who is above 18 years of age, and permanently resident in the realm, unless such person has been declared legally incompetent.” The rule determining eligibility at 18 years old was introduced in 1978.

The ambiguity in the election act is related to the question of what it means to be “permanently resident in the realm.” The interpretation was previously rather narrow but has been expanded over time. The basic principle is that Danes who move abroad permanently (official change of address) will not be able to vote. However, there are a number of important exceptions, including “persons who are employed by the Danish state and ordered to enter service outside the realm, and spouses cohabiting with such persons, shall be considered to be permanently resident in the realm.” The act also gives persons who have taken up temporary residence in foreign countries (e.g., due to work for a public agency or for education) the right to vote. In its granting of temporary residency, Denmark remains more restrictive than many other OECD countries.
Citations:
Folketinget, Parliamentary Election Act of Denmark, http://www.ft.dk/~/media/Pdf_materiale/Pdf_publikationer/English/valgloven_eng_web_samlet%20pdf.ashx (accessed 16 April 2013).

Zahle, Dansk forfatningsret 1.
France
The right to participate in elections as a candidate or as a voter is fully guaranteed. There is no evidence of restrictions or obstruction in the application of the law. Every citizen enjoys rights that are provided by the constitution. No progress has been made to extend the right to vote to foreign residents, except in the case of EU citizens.

Voter registration is easy and, in particular in small local communities, it is quasi-automatic as the local bureaucracy often proceeds with the registration process even without a specific request from the individual. Elsewhere, potential voters have to register. It is usually estimated that some 10% of the electorate is not registered.
Israel
According to the Israeli basic law “The Knesset” (1958), every Israeli citizen above 18 is eligible to vote in general elections. This right is guaranteed under the principle of equality. Thus, it is only limited by the need to exhibit valid government identification with the voter’s name and picture. If a voter refuses to take an ID photo (as is the case with some religious women), the ID will be considered valid if it has been approved by the Ministry of the Interior. Article 10 of the basic law states that the day of the national elections will be a national holiday, with public transportation and public services open, thus giving voters a positive (or, at least, not a negative) incentive to vote. Recently, a bill was presented that would allow voters to choose to vote in a location different than the one in which they are registered, easing the voting process for many citizens.

Up until 1988, the issue of prisoners’ right to vote was not much debated. However, after a number of petitions were submitted to the Supreme Court (Bagatz) the Knesset revised the law to state that a voting box must be stationed in every prison. Handicapped citizens are also entitled to specially equipped voting stations. The state is obligated to offer at least one such station in every city-council district, and at least two in districts with more than 20 regular voting stations. During the voting process, if the voter struggles with the voting procedure for any reason (such as ill health) he or she has the right to ask for assistance by an escort. Much like the case of handicapped people, soldiers on active duty are entitled to vote in special voting stations using a double envelope. Although the mentally ill are usually unable to access voting stations (due to hospitalization or personal constraints), they are not restrained from voting by any specific law.

Israel does not allow citizens that are out of the country (the territories excluded) at the time of the elections to vote unless they have a special status and are thus eligible to do so by law (e.g., embassy employees stationed abroad). However, every citizen has the right to vote without a minimum period of residency in the country.

Information regarding the voting procedure is available via special government-funded information call-in centers, websites and through the media. Problems and complaints are dealt with by the Central Elections Committee.
Citations:
“Basic Laws: The Knesset,” Knesset official website: www.knesset.gov.il/description/eng/ eng-mimshal_yesod1.html“
The 19th election for the Knesset: Information for the voter Q&A,” National election supervisor website (Hebrew)

“Who is allowed to vote?,” Israel Democracy Institute website, November 2002 (Hebrew)

Bander, Arik, “The Election Committee Suggests: Voters Could Vote in A Different Address Than Registered,” Maariv Online, 22.6.2016, http://www.maariv.co.il/news/politics/Article-546545
Italy
The registration of citizens for electoral purposes is done automatically by municipal offices and there are no significant problems with this procedure.

All citizens are notified via mail at home of their voting rights and supplied with the relevant information. Citizens are entitled to appeal to independent judicial bodies if they are mistakenly excluded from registration. Citizens living abroad are also entitled to vote. There are no significant complaints about the process.

Polling stations are very numerous and typically very near to places of residence. National and regional elections normally take place on two consecutive days, which increases the opportunities for working people to vote. Turnout has diminished significantly in recent years but is still among the highest in Europe. The lack of an absentee voting system makes voting more difficult for citizens residing abroad or in other regions of Italy.
Lithuania
All citizens who are over the age of 18 on election day are eligible to vote. Although citizens living abroad may vote if they preregister, only 11% of the Lithuanian citizens who have declared themselves to be living abroad registered to vote in the 2012 parliamentary elections. A number of proposals for the introduction of internet-based voting have been rejected by the parliament, although this issue is likely to reappear on the political agenda. Votes can be cast in person on election day, but provisions are also made for early voting, out-of-country voting, voting in special institutions, and voting for those who are homebound. There are no specific disincentives to voting, although the absence of internet voting capabilities may limit participation rates for citizens living abroad, as overseas voting must be done in person in diplomatic missions that are usually located in the capitals or other major cities of foreign countries. Unlike in the first round of the autumn 2012 parliamentary elections, when a vote-buying scandal led to the cancellation of results and a second ballot in two races, no such major cases of suspected vote-buying came to light during the 2014 presidential elections. However, after the 2016 parliamentary elections, alleged cases of vote-buying in rural electoral districts became public, leading to police investigations and the removal of one elected member of parliament from the party list.
Citations:
OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Report on the 2012 parliamentary elections in Lithuania, see http://www.osce.org/odihr/98586.
OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Report on the 2014 presidential elections in Lithuania, http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/116359?download=true.
OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Report on the 2016 parliamentary elections in Lithuania, see http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/lithuania/296446
Portugal
All adult citizens are guaranteed the right to participate in national elections. The government also provides transportation to those requiring it. Citizens in hospitals and in jails are also able to vote, with assistance provided as necessary, and provision is made for Portuguese citizens living abroad to cast their ballots. In the period under review here, the vote was extended to foreigners who are registered to vote in Portugal. There is no observable discrimination.

However, problems remain with substantial inflation of the electoral register, generating a problem of technical abstention. Estimates in the run-up to the October 2017 local elections indicated a gap of about 850,000 people between the registered and actual number of voters – an increase of 9% vis-à-vis the 2015 legislative elections.

As noted in previous reports, this difference reflects current emigration patterns and the failure of Portuguese emigrants registered to vote in Portugal to transfer their electoral registration to their overseas residence. As Portuguese voters can vote only in the administrative parish (or, if abroad, in the country) in which they are formally registered, this means that a substantial proportion of Portuguese emigrants are unable to exercise their voting rights. For instance, in the 2015 legislative elections, a total of just 9,457 Portuguese voters living in Switzerland were registered to vote there, a minute fraction of the estimated 262,748 Portuguese citizens resident in Switzerland in 2014.

However, it must be noted that this discrepancy is not due to legal barriers to registration. Both within and outside Portugal, electoral registration is a simple and non-exclusionary process.
Citations:
Pedro Crisóstomo & Maria Lopes (2015), “Emigrantes registados nos cadernos eleitorais distorcem números da abstenção,” Público online (11/10/2015), available online at: http://www.publico.pt/politica/noticia/emigrantes-registados-nos-cadernos-eleitorais-distorcem-numeros-da-abstencao-1710762?page=-1

Rui Dias (2017), “Em Guimarães há 15 mil eleitores fantasma,” Mais Guimarães – 22/8/2017, available online at: http://maisguimaraes.pt/em-guimaraes-ha-15-eleitores-fantasma/
Slovakia
The electoral process is largely inclusive. In principle, all adult citizens can participate in elections. There is a special electoral register for Slovak citizens without permanent residence in the country (i.e., homeless people). Since November 2009, only prisoners who have been sentenced for “particularly serious crimes” have been disenfranchised. Voters that will not be in their place of residence on election day can ask for a special voter’s pass that enables voting elsewhere. The new election law passed in 2015 has united regulations for all types of elections in Slovakia, thereby removing the discrimination of citizens residing or staying abroad at the time of presidential elections. Unlike in the past, they can now vote by mail in both parliamentary and presidential elections.
South Korea
All citizens of South Korea aged 19 and over have the right to cast ballots, provided that they are registered as voters at their place of residence in South Korea or in another country. National elections are national holidays, making it easier for all citizens to vote. Legally incompetent individuals and convicted criminals still serving prison terms are deprived of active voting rights. The same applies to individuals whose voting rights have been suspended by a court verdict, those who have violated election laws, committed specified crimes while holding one of a set of public offices, and those who have violated the law on political foundations or specific other laws. Since the candlelight demonstrations, public support for expanding voting rights to all citizens aged 18 and over has grown.

Since 2009, overseas citizens aged 19 or older have been able to vote in presidential elections and in National Assembly general elections. Overseas citizens are defined as Korean citizens resident in foreign countries in which they are permanent residents or short-term visitors. Moreover, Korea was the first country in Asia to grant voting rights to foreign residents who have lived in the country for three or more years. Citizens can appeal to the National Election Commission and the courts if they feel they have been discriminated against.
Citations:
National Election Commission, Right to Vote and Eligibility for Election, http://www.nec.go.kr/nec_2009/english/ National Election Commission, NEWS No.7
“Rival parties agree to new map,” Korea Joong Ang Daily, 24 February 2016.
http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=3015438
Korea Herald. “Voter Turnout Reaches 77%.” May 9, 2017. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20170509000522
Korea Joongang Daily. “Koreans divided over lowering voting age.” February 11, 2017. http://mengnews.joins.com/view.aspx?aId=3029735
Spain
Every Spanish citizen 18 years and over has the right to vote. The extent to which this suffrage can be exercised is absolute, and apart from minor errors, no discrimination or any other significant exclusion has existed in recent elections. Only those suffering specific mental disabilities or who have been judged guilty in certain criminal cases (always by a court) may lose their political rights. All citizens are automatically included in the electoral register (Censo Electoral), which is as a rule updated correctly. Adequate opportunities for casting an advance ballot are also provided in case of illness, absence or simple incapacity to attend the polling station on the day of election. The turnout rate has on average been somewhat more than 70% since 1977, though the last election (26 June 2016) had a turnout rate of 66.5%. The only two notable problems are related to immigration and emigration. The 5 million foreigners who live in Spain are not entitled to vote in national elections and naturalization is not easy even for foreign residents of long standing. However, this restriction is common to all advanced democracies. EU citizens can vote in local and European Parliament elections and non-EU citizens are entitled to cast ballots in local elections if their home countries reciprocally allow Spaniards to vote.
Regarding Spanish emigration, citizens living overseas may face onerous red tape that discourages participation in elections, as well as occasional technical failures in the administrative work of consular departments. Although 90% of the some two million Spaniards abroad are registered in the CERA (the electoral census of emigrants), a legal change passed in 2011 (Ley Orgánica 2/2011) with the declared aim of preventing fraud, made the voting procedure more complicated. As a result, turnout rates among Spanish expatriates are now extremely low (under 5%), and parties have discussed reopening the 2011 reform. Some emigrants’ associations claim these restrictions were politically motivated under a government that fears a surge in protest votes among young emigrants who have left the country in search of a job.
Citations:
May 2017, eldiario.es: “El Congreso empieza a revisar el voto rogado, que ha dejado la participación de emigrados bajo mínimos.”
http://www.eldiario.es/ sociedad/Congreso-empieza-revisar-p articipacion-emigrados_0_642886083. html
UK
In general elections, British, Irish and qualifying citizens of Commonwealth countries can vote. In local and devolved parliament/assembly elections, EU citizens resident in the United Kingdom can also vote. Entitlement to vote thus extends beyond British citizenship. However, the aforementioned nationalities can vote only if they have leave to remain in the United Kingdom.

In order to be entitled to vote, voters must be on the electoral register, which is maintained by local authorities and updated annually. The Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013 also introduced individual electoral registration, which is intended to improve the security of the registration process. Registration statistics show regional and social discrepancies. There has been some concern that in certain localities where a significant proportion of the population do not speak English as a first language the registration process has been abused. Sporadic complaints are made about excessive (and possibly manipulated) use of postal votes.

A restriction on the right to vote in national elections applies only in three cases, namely criminal imprisonment, mental disability and membership either of the House of Lords or the royal family.
 
The procedures for the registration of voters and voting are for the most part effective, impartial and nondiscriminatory. Citizens can appeal to courts if they feel being discriminated. Disincentives to voting generally do not constitute genuine obstacles.
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Canada
All Canadian citizens 18 years and over have the right to vote, including the mentally deficient and people who are imprisoned in a correctional facility. The only exceptions are election officers and, following a 2015 Ontario Court of Appeal ruling, non-resident citizens who reside abroad for more than five years. Canada has a system of universal voter registration; the government is in charge of registering its citizens to vote as a means of protecting their constitutional right (this stands in contrast with the United States’ system of citizen-initiated opt-in registration). Additionally, Canada allows for election-day registration for those who the universal registration system missed. Procedures for voting are not onerous. Adequate opportunity for casting an advance ballot is provided. There are four days of advance polling, ending the week before election day. Additionally, people can vote by mail if they cannot attend to a polling station due to physical incapacity or foreign residency.

The previous Conservative government had made some highly controversial changes to Canada’s election law with the Fair Elections Act in 2014. In November 2016, the current Liberal government introduced Bill C-33 to repeal the most contentious clauses of this act. Among other things, Voter Information Cards would again be recognized as an acceptable form of identification and Canadians living abroad would again be allowed to vote in federal elections, no matter how long they have been outside the country. Despite receiving widespread support, the government has not prioritized Bill C-33, however, and it has yet to be debated in parliament.
Citations:
Parliament of Canada, Bill C-23: An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and other Acts and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts, posted at http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&DocId=6684613.

Parliament of Canada, Bill C-33: An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, posted at http://www.parl.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/bill/C-33/first-reading
Chile
Law No. 20,568, enacted in January 2012, and Law No . 20,669, enacted in April 2013, changed the voter registration system, eliminating the voluntary registration and compulsory voting system and replacing it with automatic registration and a voluntary right to vote for citizens older than 18 years. This reform promoted the participation of younger and especially first-time voters in the 2013 presidential elections. This law also introduced assisted voting for citizens with disabilities. Since April 2014, Chileans living abroad have been automatically registered to vote if they are registered correctly with the register office. Thus, in the presidential elections of 2017, Chileans living abroad will be able to participate for the first time in national elections.

These individuals are now in theory allowed to participate in presidential elections, presidential primaries and national plebiscites (which are not explicitly provided for by the constitution), but not in parliamentary or municipal elections. However, only the electoral-roll inscription is carried out automatically today.

Individuals who have been charged with a felony and sentenced to prison for more than three years and one day, as well as people classified as terrorists, lose their suffrage rights. Prisoners who have not been charged but remain on remand also lose their right to vote. Nevertheless, Law No. 20,568 eliminated penalties previously dealt to registered voters who did not vote and failed to have an explicit and officially approved excuse for not doing so. The fact that the act of voting is now completely voluntary is questioned by some politicians and intellectuals who argue that voting not only represents a civil right but also a civil duty. Fears were raised by academics that the transition to voluntary voting would be accompanied by a bias toward middle- and upper-class voters, since lower-class and marginalized voters would disproportionately stay home. These fears ultimately turned out to be unjustified, as balloting has demonstrated no significant bias with regard to socioeconomic status in comparison to previous elections. However, voter-turnout rates dropped to an historical low in the municipal elections of 2016.
Citations:
http://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/voto-de-chilenos-en-el-extranjero

http://www.biobiochile.cl/2014/04/30/presidenta-bachelet-promulga-ley-de-voto-chileno-en-el-extranjero.shtml

https://www.servel.cl/voto-de-chilenos-en-el-exterior-2/
Croatia
All citizens of voting age are entitled to participate in elections, and legislation on this issue is strongly inclusive. For example, prisoners are eligible to vote, and persons without legal capacity were allowed to participate for the first time in the April 2013 European Parliament elections. Before these 2013 elections, the highly outdated voting register was thoroughly cleaned. However, a controversial 2015 amendment to the Law on the Register of Voters limited the automatic registration of voters to those with a valid ID. A provision enabling Croatian citizens without permanent residence in Croatia to take part in national elections if they register in advance remains controversial. Upon coming to office in October 2016, Prime Minister Plenković announced to address the problem of the large differences in the number of voters per constituency, a fundamental lack of the electoral system in Croatia. In the period under review, however, no changes were initiated.
Cyprus
Voting ceased to be mandatory in 2017, while recent amendments to the law on voting registration have aimed to facilitate participation. No means of e-voting or proxy voting exist. The second amendment of the constitution (1996) lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Special arrangements enable various groups such as prisoners and others to exercise their rights. In some cases, the enrollment of displaced voters in polling stations at some distance from their actual residence seems to favor abstention. Overseas voting has been possible since 2011 in a limited number of cities in Europe and the United States. Extension of voting rights in European parliamentary elections to all Turkish Cypriots since 2014 may need additional measures in order to encourage participation.

Voter registration by young citizens was very low (20-25% of those eligible) in the 2000s. Also, abstention rates have risen sharply in particular in local elections, despite voting being mandatory until mid-2017.

Prior to recent elections, the OSCE reported that no significant concerns called for special oversight.
Citations:
1. Mandatory voting abolished, Cyprus Mail, 7 July 2017, http://cyprus-mail.com/2017/07/07/mandatory-voting-abolished/
2. Turkish Cypriots and Right to vote, http://cyprus-mail.com/2014/05/27/turkish-cypriots-will-resort-to-court-over-voting-foul-up.
3. OSCE/ODIHR Cyprus, Presidential Election, 17 February 2013: Needs Assessment Mission Report, 16 January 2013, available at, http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/98755.
Ireland
There have been no changes in voting and registration rules in recent years. All Irish citizens aged 18 and over are entitled to be registered to vote in all elections and referendums. British citizens may vote at Dáil, European and local elections; other EU citizens may vote at European and local elections; non-EU citizens may vote at local elections only.

There is no population register in Ireland on which voter registration might be based. Instead, an electoral register is compiled by local authorities. To register to vote, a person must ordinarily be a resident at the address recorded in the electoral register by 1 September, when the register comes into force. There is limited provision for postal voting. While there is no evidence of systematic discrimination or disenfranchisement of any social groups in the compilation of the electoral register, inconsistencies in the register have been repeatedly exposed, displaying a lack of investment in the electoral process and even a lack of concern for its integrity.

The constitutional convention recommended lowering the voting age from 18 to 16 and the government promised to hold a referendum on this proposal. However, it announced early in 2015 that it no longer planned to hold this referendum during the life of the present parliament.

In January 2015, the government committed to establishing an independent electoral commission during its term of office, but admitted that this commission would not be ready to function in time for the mid-2016 general election. It is hoped that it will be operational by the time of the local and European elections in 2019.
Citations:
Preliminary study on the establishment of an electoral commission in Ireland, submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government
by: Richard Sinnott, John Coakley, John O’Dowd, James McBride,
Geary Institute University College Dublin
November 2008
Programme for National Recovery 2011-2016, March 2011
Convention on the Constitution: www.constitution.ie
http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/reduction-of-voting-age-from-18-to-16-to-be-put-to-referendum-1.1458229

David Farrell (2015), ‘Conclusion and Reflection: Time for an Electoral Commission for Ireland,’ Irish Political Studies 30:4, 641-646.
Japan
The Japanese constitution grants universal adult suffrage to all Japanese citizens. No fundamental problems with discrimination or the exercise of this right exist. Since 2006, Japanese citizens living abroad have also been able to participate in elections. In 2015, the general voting age was lowered from 20 to 18.

One long-standing and controversial issue concerns the relative size of electoral districts. Rural districts contain far fewer voters than the more heavily populated urban areas. In June 2017, the Lower House electoral system was changed to reduce the maximum vote-weight disparity to 1.99 to 1, just under the 2:1 threshold set by the Supreme Court. The number of seats in the Lower House consequently dropped by 10 to a postwar low of 465 (289 constituency seats, 176 proportional-representation seats).

Vote-weight disparities have been more pronounced for the Upper House. In 2015, the parliament redrew electoral districts to lower the maximum disparity to 2.97:1. Critics said these changes were too modest, charging that the changes in fact served the vested interests of the LDP.

A 2016 law allows for voting in shopping malls and other places such as universities, with the aim of increasing electoral participation rates. Electoral registration procedures have been eased somewhat for similar reasons.
Citations:
Fukuko Takahashi, Diet passes seat-redistribution for Upper House elections, Asahi Shimbun Asia & Japan Watch, 29 July 2015, http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/politics/AJ201507290044

Diet finally enacts electoral redistricting law to correct vote weight disparities in Japan, The Japan Times, 9 June 2017, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/06/09/national/politics-diplomacy/diet-finally-enacts-electoral-redistricting-law-correct-vote-weight-disparities-across-japan/

1,021 to run in Japan’s Lower House election on Oct. 22: poll, Japan Times, 29 September 2017, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/09/29/national/politics-diplomacy/poll-finds-1021-plan-run-lower-house-seats-oct-22-election/#.WlNB9PCnGJA
Latvia
All adult citizens over 18 years of age have voting rights in national elections. EU citizens can vote in local and European elections, and all have access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for voting. Procedures are in place for ensuring that incarcerated persons are able to cast ballots. Non-resident citizens have voting access via polling stations in Latvian diplomatic entities abroad as well as through an absentee-ballot postal procedure.

Latvia has a significant population of non-citizens (11.43% of the total population in 2017) who cannot participate in any elections.

Voting procedures for non-resident citizens can in practice present obstacles. For example, the number of Latvian diplomatic representations is limited, which can mean that non-resident citizens have to travel long distances, at significant expense, to vote. Furthermore, to vote by post non-resident citizens are required to submit their passport, which can be held for three weeks.

Election observers in the 2014 parliamentary elections found no major faults with voting rights and access.

At the local-government level, voting rights and procedures are similar. Voters may vote in local-government elections on the basis of their residence or according to property ownership. Voters have designated polling stations but can switch to a more convenient polling station if desired. For individuals unable to be present at polling stations on election day, polling stations are open for early voting in the days prior to the election. Currently, no provision is made for non-resident citizen participation in local-government elections.
Citations:
1. Central Election Commission, Instructions on Postal Voting Procedure, Available at (in Latvian): http://web.cvk.lv/pub/public/30058.html, Last assessed: 20.05.2013

2. Report on Parliamentary Elections in Latvia, 2014, Available at: http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/132416, Last assessed: 16.11.2015

3. Central Statistics Bureau (2017). Population of Latvia by citizenship. Available at: http://data.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/Sociala/Sociala_ikgad_iedz_iedzskaits/IS0090.px/?rxid=b9db0bc7-a63e-4dc2-a338-63eb65055a70. Last accessed 15.10.2017
Luxembourg
Voting is compulsory in Luxembourg for those listed on the electoral register. To vote, one is required to be a national of Luxembourg, to be at least 18 years old on the day of the election, and have full civil and political rights. Citizens temporarily living abroad may vote by mail and citizens over the age of 75 are exempted from casting their vote. There are no perceptible forms of discrimination within the voting process. The Luxembourgish government sought to encourage political participation among young people by lowering the voting age to 16 years, but this proposal was rejected in the consultative referendum of June 2015.

Experts have constantly criticized the representative makeup of the parliament as insufficient, since it does not include migrants and cross-border commuters who constitute 80% of the labor force in the private sector and who are the main driving force of the national economy. Around 47% of the resident population cannot vote in national elections as they are not Luxembourg nationals. However, 90% of the resident population are EU citizens and may vote in European elections and municipal elections. All foreigners, EU citizens, as well as citizens from third countries, have the right to participate in local elections, provided they fulfill certain residency requirements and are registered on the electoral list. Conditions for inscription have been eased over the years. Only 23% of foreigners were registered in the electoral municipal election of 2017, yet 12% of the total electorate were foreigners and almost 8% of candidates were not Luxembourg nationals. This indicates that non-nationals’ political participation at the local level remains low.
Citations:
“ Noch viel Luft nach oben.” Luxemburger Wort, 7 Febr. 2017, https://www.wort.lu/de/politik/frauen-und-auslaender-bei-kommunalwahlen-noch-viel-luft-nach-oben-58998841a5e74263e13aa349. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.

“Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg prend acte des résultats du référendum sur des questions constitutionnelles.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, 7 June 2015, www.gouvernement.lu/4925351/07-ref. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.

“Mäßiges Interesse bei den Ausländern.” Luxemburger Wort, 30 July 2017, https://www.wort.lu/de/politik/kommunalwahlen-maessiges-interesse-bei-den-auslaendern-597b4ac9a5e74263e13c4dfc?utm_campaign=magnet&utm_source=article_page&utm_medium=related_articles. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.

“ 3 575 Kandidaten stehen zur Wahl.” Luxemburger Wort, 25 Sept. 2017, www.wort.lu/de/lokales/gemeindewahlen-3-575-kandidaten-stehen-zur-wahl-59c8b22256202b51b13c3d70?utm_campaign=magnet&utm_source=article_page&utm_medium=related_articles. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.

“Principes élections européennes.” Le site officiel des élections au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, www.elections.public.lu/fr/systeme-electoral/europeennes-mode-emploi.html. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.

“Elections communales 2017.” Le site officiel des élections au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, www.elections.public.lu/fr/elections-communales/2017/resultats.html. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.

“Système électoral.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, www.gouvernement.lu/1719337/systeme-electoral. Accessed 21 Dec. 2017.
Malta
Malta’s electoral laws are effective and impartial, and are controlled by a constitutionally-designated electoral commission. While there is no legal obligation to vote, turnout at general elections is high at over 90%. Maltese law states that any individual sentenced to a minimum prison term of one year cannot vote in elections. In the absence of postal or electronic voting mechanisms, residency qualifications are an obstacle to voting since voters are required to physically cast their ballots in Malta. However, Maltese citizens living abroad can access highly subsidized airfares to Malta for the purpose of voting. Amendments to the Electoral Law 2012 have strengthened the voting rights of some citizens, primarily those who celebrate their 18th birthday after the publication of the electoral register. At the local level, the vote has now been extended to 16-year-olds. The island country is currently debating a similar extension for general elections. Other changes have helped patients cast their votes during a hospital stay. Notwithstanding, legislation must be harmonized to ensure full voting rights for individuals with mental disabilities. Residents who are not citizens may not vote in national elections, yet in line with EU law, they may participate in local or European Parliament elections, though there have been registration problems. Immigrants and refugees, however, do not enjoy the right to vote. Recommendations have been made to increase transparency in the system. These include a secrecy mechanism for assisted voters as well as laws enabling international observers to examine the election process, the setting of deadlines and publishing of all records of complaint.
Citations:
http://www.timesofmalta.com/article s/view/20130115/elections-news/ad-o n-voting-rights-for-maltese-abroad- party-financing.453281
http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20 130220/local/Should-prisoners-in-Ma lta-be-allowed-election-vote-.45843 0
Should Migrants have the Right to Vote? Times of Malta 23/06/14
https://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20171015/local/counting-halls-electronic-voting-and-legal-changes-on-electoral.660402
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Bulgaria
Bulgarian voters are registered by default through voter lists maintained by the municipalities. Voter lists are published in advance of election day, and voters can also check their presence on the lists online. Every person who is not included in the voter list at their place of residence can ask to be included, and if not included can appeal to the courts. Bulgarian citizens residing abroad have the right to vote in parliamentary and presidential elections, as well as in national referendums. They can do this at the various consular services of Bulgaria, or if they establish a polling station themselves in accordance with procedures specified in the election code.

Contrary to the European Convention on Human Rights, people serving prison sentences are not allowed to vote. Another limitation affects absentee voting – citizens can obtain permits to vote outside of their permanent place of residence, but no general postal vote exists. A national referendum in 2015 on a proposal to introduce distance electronic voting received overwhelming support, forcing parliament to decide on the issue in 2016. While parliament refrained from enshrining remote electronic voting in the electoral code, it paved the way for experimenting with it in the future.

Changes to the electoral code adopted in April 2016 made voting compulsory and limited the number of voting sections in foreign countries to 35 per country. The sanction for not voting, however, was quite weak – the voter can be taken out of the register after not voting in three consecutive elections, but a simple written request is sufficient for reinstatement – and was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in February 2017. The limitation of sections abroad was dropped for EU countries. Neither of the two changes played a significant role in the two national elections during the period under review.
Mexico
At the national level, Mexico by and large conforms to the standards of electoral democracies. The organization and administration of elections is in the hands of the National Electoral Institute (INE), an autonomous and professional agency. There is also a system of electoral courts, which are generally more professional and independent than the criminal courts. Citizens and party members can appeal to these courts if their political or electoral rights are violated. In recent years, INE oversight over state-level electoral institutions has increased.

The same electoral register is used for federal and state/local elections. The voter identification card is Mexico’s de facto national ID. Contrary to many other OECD countries, citizens are not registered to vote automatically, instead they must take the initiative to register. This may serve to discourage marginalized and less educated citizens from voting.

Even though Mexicans living abroad (about 10% of the population) are now allowed to vote, turnout has been low, in part due to the difficult registration process. INE has invested in making the registration process for Mexicans abroad easier by partnering with consulates and embassies. Higher turnout for Mexicans abroad is expected in the 2018 election.
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Romania
Citizens aged 18 years or older on election day are eligible to vote, unless disenfranchised by a final court decision for reasons of legal incapacity or as part of a judicial sentence. There is a central voter register based on a compilation of information from various government authorities. To minimize voter fraud, which has been a major issue in the past, Teamnet was awarded a RON 31 million contract to provide high-tech voting equipment to monitor whether voters have their voting rights in good standing and cast only one ballot. Despite these measures, trust in the voting system remains low.

The fact that thousands of Romanians abroad were unable to cast their votes in the 2014 presidential elections prompted the introduction of a postal vote for diaspora voters in November 2015. However, less than 10,000 out of more than 600,000 Romanians abroad participated in the 2016 parliamentary elections. Information was weak, voters had to register with the Permanent Electoral Authority before the vote and the authorities asked for proof of residence before registration, which deterred many Romanians who feared that Romania’s Tax Authority would use that information to trigger an investigation against them.
Turkey
All Turkish nationals over the age of 18 can exercise the right to vote (Constitution, Article 67). The Supreme Election Board is the sole authority in the administration of Turkish elections (Law 298, Article 10). The General Directorate of the Electoral Registry, a part of the Supreme Election Board, prepares, maintains and renews the nationwide electoral registry.

The ban on military students and conscripts, and the blanket restriction on voting rights for prisoners are disproportionate and at odds with Turkey’s international obligations (e.g., Turkey’s OSCE commitments). About 600,000 citizens were ineligible to vote in the 2017 referendum. Moreover, special security zones were in place in a few provinces in the southeast of Turkey, which affected about 700,000 voters.

In 2008, the parliament passed a law facilitating voting for Turkish citizens who are not living or present in Turkey during elections (Law 5749). In the 2015 parliamentary elections, about 54 million voters were registered domestically, along with an additional 2.8 million voters living abroad. More than one million voters cast their votes abroad. The distance of polling stations from residents’ homes and the comparatively short voting period can be considered as potentially major obstacles to voting.

Turkey has a passive electoral registration system maintained by the Supreme Election Board. Despite the recent revision of the national electoral registry based on an address-registration system, critics have noted that the number of registered voters and the number of eligible citizens registered in the address system do not match. In autumn 2015, these critics argued that about 672,000 citizens are missing from the electoral rolls. However, OSCE reports have judged the registration process to be reliable and inclusive.

Parliamentary and local elections are conducted by local election boards under the supervision of the Supreme Election Board. These local boards verify election returns and conduct investigations of irregularities, complaints and objections, with the national board providing a final check. Vote and Beyond (Oy ve Ötesi), a non-governmental organization, reported no significant violations of the law at the polling stations in 2015. Whether thousands of citizens, who were detained following the failed coup attempt or had their passports confiscated and cannot leave the country, will have their democratic rights restricted remains to be seen.

Disabled voters sometimes face difficulties if the polling stations lack appropriate access facilities.
Citations:
OSCE/ODIHR (2017) Republic of Turkey Constitutional Referendum 16 April 2017 OSCE/ODIHR Limited Referendum Observation Mission Final Report, http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/turkey/324816?download=true (accessed 1 November 2017)
OSCE/ODIHR (2015b) Republic of Turkey Early Parliamentary Elections, 1 November 2015. OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report, http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/turkey/219201?download=true (accessed 27 October 2015)
OSCE/ODIHR (2015a) Republic of Turkey Parliamentary Elections, 7 June 2015 Limited Election Observation Mission
Final Report, http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/turkey/177926?download=true. (accessed 27 October 2015)
Temiz Seçim Platformu, 2007-2015 Seçim Hileleri Raporu, 1 Mayıs 2015, TUİK ile YSK’nın Türkiye Listelerinin Karşılaştırılması, temizsecim.org/2007-2014-secim-hileleri-raporu.html (accessed 27 October 2015)
‘672 bin seçmen buharlaştı (672 thousand voters evaporated)’, Cumhuriyet daily newpaper, 3 October 2015, http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turkiye/380955/672_bin_secmen_buharlasti.html (accessed 27 October 2015)
USA
Voter registration is subject to regulation by the federal government, but it is administered by the states. Most discriminatory practices have been eliminated through federal regulation and enforcement over the last 50 years. Convicted felons are ineligible to vote in many states; non-citizen residents are not permitted to vote, although permanent residents are encouraged to become citizens.

Between 2011 and 2016, Republican-controlled legislatures in over half of the states have enacted or considered measures that have made it harder for some groups to vote – mostly by upgrading the identification requirements for voter registration or by reducing opportunities for mail-in and early voting. Federal courts have struck down or delayed implementation of several state measures, but also have declined to delay others. In 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a 2006 congressional 25-year extension of the section of the Voting Rights Act that required specified states or counties with a history of discrimination to pre-clear changes in voting laws with the U.S. Justice Department. The Justice Department can still challenge discriminatory practices in court, but cannot prevent their initial adoption. During 2015 and 2016, registration procedures have been highly controversial, with bills to restrict registration or (less often) to facilitate it under consideration in many states. Some Republican-controlled states reduced the number of polling places, resulting in several-hour waits in minority and low-income areas. Long lines clearly reduced the Latino and African American vote in certain areas in the 2016 elections. The Trump Justice Department has not challenged such voting restrictions.
 
While the procedures for the registration of voters and voting are de jure non-discriminatory, isolated cases of discrimination occur in practice. For some citizens, disincentives to voting constitute significant obstacles.
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Hungary
In Hungary, the registration and voting procedures are heavily tilted in favor of the governing Fidesz party. The single most important problem has been the unequal treatment of three groups of eligible voters: (1) Hungarians living in Hungary, (2) Hungarians with dual citizenship in neighboring countries and (3) Hungarian citizens working abroad. While the first group can vote without registration, the others have to register beforehand through a complicated procedure. Hungarians living abroad and in possession of dual citizenship – who usually demonstrate a strong political affinity for Fidesz – can vote by mail. In contrast, Hungarian citizens working abroad, who are often opposed to the Orbán government can vote only at diplomatic missions which are often far away. These biased procedures gave a big advantage to Fidesz in the 2014 elections and contributed to its victory.
 
The procedures for the registration of voters or voting have systemic discriminatory effects. De facto, a substantial number of adult citizens are excluded from national elections.
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