Israel

   

Executive Capacity

#24
Key Findings
With a range of strategic-planning concerns, Israel falls into the lower-middle ranks (rank 24) with respect to executive capacity. Its score on this measure has fallen by 0.2 points since 2014.

In recent years, the PMO has become more deeply involved in policy proposal and development. Planning reforms within the PMO have facilitated this process, but line-ministry planning-unit heads also have significant proposal-development authority. Ministerial committees and informal coordination mechanisms are both influential.

A recently implemented RIA program is showing early positive signs. The civil-society sector is gaining a stronger voice within society, and thus coming to influence policy. Inconsistent ministry policy statements are not uncommon. In part because budgeting is highly centralized, ministries act territorially.

A new tracking system shows that a high rate of governmental decisions are implemented. Efficiency is sometimes enhanced through the use of a highly controversial emergency law instead of the ordinary legislative process. Major improvements have been made with regard to monitoring ministries. A new funding and support program for municipalities should reduce local inequalities.

Strategic Capacity

#12

How much influence do strategic planning units and bodies have on government decision-making?

10
 9

Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions, and they exercise strong influence on government decision-making.
 8
 7
 6


Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions. Their influence on government decision-making is systematic but limited in issue scope or depth of impact.
 5
 4
 3


Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions. Occasionally, they exert some influence on government decision-making.
 2
 1

In practice, there are no units and bodies taking a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions.
Strategic Planning
6
Israel’s government adopted the practice of strategic planning only in the 1990s. Previously, government actions were based on practical experience rather than theory, with much improvisation and a policy framework driven by short-term incentives. As a result, the Israeli government did not develop strategic planning units early on, even though a planning division was developed in the Israeli Defense Forces in the early 1970s.

Today, the director general of the Prime Minister’s Office oversees the body’s administrative and policy work. He or she supervises three main planning agencies: The National Economic Council, the National Security Council and the Policy Planning Department. In 2010, the government formed a committee to investigate internal strategic planning capacities; the results, published in late 2012, identified many structural deficiencies.

A number of steps have been taken as a consequence, with the most prominent of these being the annual publication of the Governmental Plan Book. The review period featured the fifth time this book had been published, and it was this time accompanied by important advancements such as an extension to non-departmental governmental agencies; the inclusion of measurement indicators, target budgets and personnel allocations; biannual plans; and most importantly, a revision and assessment of the previous implementation of plans and decisions in all ministries. The 2017 book demonstrates the success and professionalism of reform efforts in governmental planning, and ministries and politicians today use it regularly as a working tool.

Citations:
“A guide for government planning,” The department for policy planning, September 2010 (Hebrew)

Arlozorov, Merav, “Serious, Ambitious, and Improving: Some Good Words on Netanyahu’s Government,” The Marker, 5.3.2017, https://www.themarker.com/news/1.3903271


Loten, Tomer, “The Governmental Planning Reform is Now Complete: Now is the time for an Implementation Reform.” The Marker, 27.3.2017, https://www.themarker.com/opinion/1.3954484

“Policy departments – auxiliary tool for navigation,” the Reut institute 11.6.2008. (Hebrew)

Working Plan Book 2017-18, PMO Office, March 2017: http://www.plans.gov.il/pdf2017/ (Hebrew)

“Government releases 2017-2018 work plan,” Ynet reporters, 03.05.2017, https://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4930776,00.html

How influential are non-governmental academic experts for government decisionmaking?

10
 9

In almost all cases, the government transparently consults with a panel of non-governmental academic experts at an early stage of government decision-making.
 8
 7
 6


For major political projects, the government transparently consults with a panel of non-governmental academic experts at an early stage of government decision-making.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, the government transparently consults with a panel of non-governmental academic experts at an early stage of government decision-making.
 2
 1

The government does not consult with non-governmental academic experts, or existing consultations lack transparency entirely and/or are exclusively pro forma.
Scholarly Advice
7
The government has several means of interacting with experts and academics. Experts can sit on independent public committees to examine the causes and consequences of a specific event or incident, such as the Trajtenberg Committee that was formed following the 2011 social justice protests. They can also serve in permanent committees that consult with the government on a regular basis, such as the National Economic Council in the PMO or be summoned by parliamentary committees to present opinions or to offer a different perspective on a certain issue. Finally, think tanks and research institutes act as a brokers between the academic world and politics, advocating and offering information on current events and policy issues. On security and other issues such as foreign policy, the government tends to consult experts from the military rather than academics. Ministers often appoint an external advisory committee to assist with specific issues. One significant example is the Shashinsky Committee, appointed by the minister of finance to examine government fiscal policy on oil and gas. Israeli ministers also often consult informally with academic experts, primarily to receive guidance that is not influenced by political interests.

Citations:
“Conclusions of the committee for the examination of the fiscal policy with respect to oil and gas resources in Israel,” State of Israel official publication, January 2011: http://www.financeisrael.mof.gov.il/FinanceIsrael/Docs/En/publications/02_Full_Report_Nonincluding_Appendixes.pdf

Hever, Shir, “The Privatization of Security,” 2012, Van Leer Institute

Interministerial Coordination

#30

Does the government office / prime minister’s office (GO / PMO) have the expertise to evaluate ministerial draft bills substantively?

10
 9

The GO / PMO has comprehensive sectoral policy expertise and provides regular, independent evaluations of draft bills for the cabinet / prime minister. These assessments are guided exclusively by the government’s strategic and budgetary priorities.
 8
 7
 6


The GO / PMO has sectoral policy expertise and evaluates important draft bills.
 5
 4
 3


The GO / PMO can rely on some sectoral policy expertise, but does not evaluate draft bills.
 2
 1

The GO / PMO does not have any sectoral policy expertise. Its role is limited to collecting, registering and circulating documents submitted for cabinet meetings.
GO Expertise
6
The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) relies on sectoral policy expertise. Its need for a staff of independent and professional analysts originally led to the establishment of the National Economic Council, the National Security Council and the Policy Planning Department that advises the prime minister directly. The 2012 Kochik committee viewed these as positive but insufficient steps, and recommended that the PMO’s consulting mechanism be strengthened.

Recent changes have shifted this system somewhat. The PMO’s planning reforms have de facto given it the capacity to advise other ministries regarding their policy proposals and bills. This is practically done via collaboration with (and to some extent supervision of) the ministries’ vice directors of strategic planning and economy, who are officially the heads of the ministerial planning units.

Citations:
Arian, Asher, “Politics in Israel: The Second Republic,” 2nd Edition 2005 (Hebrew).
“The committee to investigate the Prime Minister’s headquarter,” Official report (April 2012).

Transparency report of the planning and strategy units and their interaction with private consultation firms,” Knesset Committee Protocol, 21.11.2016,
https://oknesset.org/committee/meeting/13867/?page=2

Can the government office / prime minister’s office return items envisaged for the cabinet meeting on the basis of policy considerations?

10
 9

The GO/PMO can return all/most items on policy grounds.
 8
 7
 6


The GO/PMO can return some items on policy grounds.
 5
 4
 3


The GO/PMO can return items on technical, formal grounds only.
 2
 1

The GO/PMO has no authority to return items.
GO Gatekeeping
7
Traditionally, the prime minister did not hold the power to return items to the Israeli general cabinet meetings. However, in 2012 it filed for an amendment to standard practice, which was then ratified by the government. This included expanding the prime minister’s authority to delay the implementation of government decisions by resubmitting an issue to vote after it had been rejected, as well as authorizing him or her to cancel, postpone or summon meetings for government decisions. Since the passage of this amendment, the prime minister has returned several items, and his position has significantly strengthened.

Citations:
Barnea, Shlomit and Ofer Kenig, “Political nominations in the executive branch,” IDI website June 2011 (Hebrew)

“Government bill amendment 868 from 12.8.2012,” PMO official website:http://www.pmo.gov.il/Secretary/sederyom/Pages/seder120812.aspx (Hebrew)

Weisman, Lilach, “Expansion of the Prime Minister’s authorities was approved; We must stop the madness,” Globes website 12.8.2012: http://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=1000773448 (Hebrew)

To what extent do line ministries involve the government office/prime minister’s office in the preparation of policy proposals?

10
 9

There are inter-related capacities for coordination in the GO/PMO and line ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The GO/PMO is regularly briefed on new developments affecting the preparation of policy proposals.
 5
 4
 3


Consultation is rather formal and focuses on technical and drafting issues.
 2
 1

Consultation occurs only after proposals are fully drafted as laws.
Line Ministries
7
The PMO has undergone continuous structural reforms since the mid-2000s. Several committees, including Trajtenberg and Kuchik (both established in 2011), issued recommendations regarding PMO working dynamics with other line ministries, while also taking into account the country’s highly fragmented party system (in which ministers are nominated according to political alliances) and the overly centralized budgeting process.

In recent years, the PMO has become more involved in ministries’ preparation of policy proposals through various channels. For example, the PMO’s chief of staff heads a forum of the director generals of all line ministries, with the goal of advancing policy agendas and interministerial cooperation. The PMO is also involved in the preparation of policy proposals through its professional councils and roundtable initiatives. Its oversight capabilities, demonstrated by its yearly publication of government working plans, result in further involvement. However, the Kuchnik committee noted that the PMO tends to overreach and control policy formation more than is advisable when facing comparatively weaker ministries. In the last few years, special emphasis has been placed on the heads of planning units, and on giving them control of, or at least strong involvement in, all policy, budget and bill proposals.

Citations:
“About: The governance committee,” PMO website (Hebrew)

“Governmental planning guide,” PMO website (september 2010) (Hebrew)
“Strengthening government’s governability, planning and execution – Continue discussion,” PMO website 25.12.2011 (Hebrew)

Koren, Ora, “Line ministries will submit budget drafts – and will not be able to blame the treasury,” TheMarker website 13.11.2012 https://www.themarker.com/news/1.1863220 (Hebrew)

“The committee for reviewing the PMO,” official state publication (2012): http://www.kucik.co.il/uploads/sofi.pdf (Hebrew).

“The system,” Policy planning PMO website (Hebrew)

Working Plan Book 2017-18, PMO Office, March 2017: http://www.plans.gov.il/pdf2017/ (Hebrew)
“Failures of the public sector and directions for change,” Public sharing – The committee for economic and social change (2011) (Hebrew)

How effectively do ministerial or cabinet committees coordinate cabinet proposals?

10
 9

The large majority of cabinet proposals are reviewed and coordinated first by committees.
 8
 7
 6


Most cabinet proposals are reviewed and coordinated by committees, in particular proposals of political or strategic importance.
 5
 4
 3


There is little review or coordination of cabinet proposals by committees.
 2
 1

There is no review or coordination of cabinet proposals by committees. Or: There is no ministerial or cabinet committee.
Cabinet Committees
6
According to the basic law provisions addressing the government, as well as prevailing standards of practice, the government is authorized to appoint cabinet committees (called ministerial committees) to handle different policy issues. Moreover, it is obligated to appoint a security- and state-focused cabinet that includes the prime minister, the minister of defense, the minister of justice, the foreign minister, the minister of state security and the minister of finance. Currently, 33 ministerial committees work to address a wide range of topics.

While most ministerial committees receive limited attention in the media, an exception is the ministerial committee for legislation, which handles the preparation and the first approval of legislative proposals. In other words, the committee’s decisions regarding proposals determine how the coalition members will vote on the proposals in the Knesset.
The ministerial committees in Israel are increasingly fruitful. Under the previous government (2013 – 2015), their decisions accounted for 54% of all governmental decisions (the current government has not yet released updated information on this topic).

Citations:
Cabinet committees and their authorities,” the ministry of Justice website 24.6.1996 (Hebrew)

Friedberg, Chen, “The Knesset’s Committees – Foretold Failure?,” The Ben-Gurion

Law Proposal –Amendments of ‘Basic Law: The Government’, 2015
‘Decade of Ministerial Committees – comparative study’ – January 2016,
Citizens’ Empowerment in Israel (Hebrew): http://www.ceci.org.il/sites/citizens/UserContent/files/knowledge/govfunction/MinisterCommittees.pdf

“Ministerial Commitees.” PMO’s website (12.11.2015), http://www.pmo.gov.il/English/GovernmentSecretariat/Pages/MinisterialCommittees.aspx

Research Institute for the Study of Israel & Zionism (January 2010) (Hebrew)

“The guidelines for government work,” PMO’s website (Hebrew)
Working Plan Book 2017-18, PMO Office, March 2017: http://www.plans.gov.il/pdf2017/ (Hebrew)

‘Transparency in the Ministerial Committee for Legislation’ – February 2016, The Social Guard (Hebrew): http://fs.knesset.gov.il/%5C20%5CCommittees%5C20_cs_bg_325109.pdf

How effectively do ministry officials/civil servants coordinate policy proposals?

10
 9

Most policy proposals are effectively coordinated by ministry officials/civil servants.
 8
 7
 6


Many policy proposals are effectively coordinated by ministry officials/civil servants.
 5
 4
 3


There is some coordination of policy proposals by ministry officials/civil servants.
 2
 1

There is no or hardly any coordination of policy proposals by ministry officials/civil servants.
Ministerial Bureaucracy
5
Over the past decade, the government has sought to improve interministerial cooperation in order to overcome bureaucratic entanglements and political power struggles. In so doing, it has introduced roundtable meetings, director generals and vice director generals of ministries coordination forums, guidelines, and digital information platforms. However, experts say that ministries are essentially territorial in nature, and information sharing between ministries is difficult at best.

This lack of communication results at least partially from the government’s highly centralized budget process, which makes public servants defensive of limited and strictly supervised resources. In 2016, a report by the State Comptroller suggested that the lack of communication regarding foreign affairs is a result of the transfer of duties from away from main ministries such as the ministry of foreign affairs to other ministries. The report also asserted that interministerial disagreements are delaying the publication of regulations necessary for the implementation of laws. A report from 2015 claimed that 175 laws had not been implemented because ministries had not yet established regulations regarding those laws. According to that report, 32% of regulations are not promulgated because of internal arguments between ministries.

Some of the communication difficulties between ministries results from the dominance of non-sectoral offices such as the PMO in policy development, as well as the use of ad-hoc interministerial committees in order to give momentum to policy proposals. An expert committee recently recommended the establishment of a mechanism for coordination and decision-making as a means of addressing the numerous entities involved in the implementation of national goals. The committee suggested accomplishing this by strengthening the PMO’s authority, and emphasizing its role as a coordinator between other ministries.

Another recent step toward strengthening cooperation within ministries can be found in an executive-training program called “the leadership academy.” Established in 2014, this identifies the promotion of communication as a primary goal.

Citations:
“About: Public sharing,” Sharing official website (Hebrew)“ Failures of the public sector and directions for change,” The committee for social and economical change website (Hebrew)

Brada, Moshe, “Coordination between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense,” The Knesset Research Center 2007: http://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m01880.pdf (Hebrew)

Bar-Kol, Yair, “Appointing a minister for interministerial cooperation,” TheMarker 3.4.2013: http://www.themarker.com/opinion/1.1983509 (Hebrew)

Haber, Carmit, “Managerial culture blocks to implementing open government policy,” The Israel Democracy Institute (March 2013) (Hebrew)

Ravid, Barak.”Watchdog: Power Struggles Between Ministries Hindered Israel’s Battle Against BDS,” 24.5.2016 http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/1.721284

“The committee to investigate the Prime Minister’s headquarter,” Official state report, April 2012 (Hebrew).

“The division of electronics and technologies,” Accountant General website (Hebrew) “The guide for governmental sharing: A model for cooperation between ministries,” official state publication, 2013: http://www.ihaklai.org.il/Portals/0/Documents/articles/מודל%20לשיתוף%20פעולה%20בין%20משרדי%20הממשלה.pdf (Hebrew)

“The Leadership Academy- founding statement,” November 2014, Civil Service Commission website:
http://www.csc.gov.il/Tenders/TendersServices/Documents/LeadershipAcademyDoc.pdf

Zinger, Ronny. “175 lews are not implanted because ministries didn’t set regulation for them” – Calcalist, 25.1.2016 (Hebrew): http://www.calcalist.co.il/local/articles/0,7340,L-3679237,00.html

How effectively do informal coordination mechanisms complement formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination?

10
 9

Informal coordination mechanisms generally support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 8
 7
 6


In most cases, informal coordination mechanisms support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, informal coordination mechanisms support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 2
 1

Informal coordination mechanisms tend to undermine rather than complement formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
Informal Coordination
5
Israel’s government system is greatly influenced by informal coordination mechanisms, such as coalition obligations and internal party politics. However, due to its highly fragmented party system, it is hard to determine whether they support or undermine formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination. While coordination between like-minded parties may be made easier by the situation, fragmentation may result in stagnation over disputed policies.

Citations:
“Annual report 61 for the year 2010: Treatment of prolonged interministerial disagreements,” The State Comptroller office website (Hebrew)

Blander, Dana and Ben Nur, Gal, “Governmental coalitions: A steering mechanism in the political system,” in The political system in Israel 2013: http://www.idi.org.il/ספרים-ומאמרים/הוצאה-לאור/הספרים/הספרייה-לדמוקרטיה/המערכת-הפוליטית-בישראל (Hebrew).

“Coalition management,” the Knesset website: http://main.knesset.gov.il/About/Lexicon/Pages/coalition-management.aspx (Hebrew)

Rivlin, Reuven, “The intellectual independency of the Knesset member: the limit of the coalition obligation,” The Israel Democracy Institute (December 2010) (Hebrew).

Evidence-based Instruments

#36

To what extent does the government assess the potential impacts of existing and prepared legal acts (regulatory impact assessments, RIA)?

10
 9

RIA are applied to all new regulations and to existing regulations which are characterized by complex impact paths. RIA methodology is guided by common minimum standards.
 8
 7
 6


RIA are applied systematically to most new regulations. RIA methodology is guided by common minimum standards.
 5
 4
 3


RIA are applied in some cases. There is no common RIA methodology guaranteeing common minimum standards.
 2
 1

RIA are not applied or do not exist.
RIA Application
4
As a part of a regulatory-burden-reduction process, the government approved plans for a regulatory impact assessment model in 2014. However, this became mandatory for all new regulations and regulatory ministries only in 2016 (with several exceptions). In 2016, six RIA reports were published. By the end of the review period in 2017, seven reports had been published. A ministerial committee for regulation has been established, and an annual timeline for RIA has been published. In addition, a Governmental Regulation Website has been launched, providing ministries with a guidebook (tailored for specific ministry requirements) written by the PMO. This represents a major advancement in the government’s policy-design process, although the many exceptions to these requirements mean that significant progress remains to be made.

Citations:
“More about the Regulatory Impact Assessment Program,” PMO website:
http://regulation.gov.il/misgeret

“RIA Guide,” Governmental Regulation Website (Hebrew): http://regulation.pmo.gov.il/RIAguide/Pages/RIA.aspx “Report from the committee for improving regulatory mechanisms in Israel and reviewing interfaces between various regulators in the market,” official report (April 2013). The Protocol of the Economic Affairs Committee – 28.10.2015: http://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/committees/Economics/Conclusion/coc281015.pdf

Does the RIA process ensure participation, transparency and quality evaluation?

10
 9

RIA analyses consistently involve stakeholders by means of consultation or collaboration, results are transparently communicated to the public and assessments are effectively evaluated by an independent body on a regular basis.
 8
 7
 6


The RIA process displays deficiencies with regard to one of the three objectives.
 5
 4
 3


The RIA process displays deficiencies with regard to two of the three objectives.
 2
 1

RIA analyses do not exist or the RIA process fails to achieve any of the three objectives of process quality.
Quality of RIA Process
3
Although the government’s RIA process is still in infancy, an evaluation of its quality can already be made. The governmental RIA guide for regulators includes the requirements both of citizen participation (e.g., the regulator can choose from an array of methods such as informational sessions, hearings and consultation) and transparency (e.g., the assessment and the regulatory policy chosen must be published). This derives directly from governmental decision 2118, which identifies collaboration with “as many stakeholders as possible” and publication of the assessments as primary goals.
However, independent evaluations of RIA assessment quality are not yet either standard or required.

Citations:
Government decision 2118, 22.10.2014, PMO website, http://www.pmo.gov.il/policyplanning/Regulation/Documents/dec2118.pdf

Governmental RIA Guide, April 2015, PMO website: http://regulation.gov.il/uploads/reports/7/RIAGUIDE_opt.pdf

Does the government conduct effective sustainability checks within the framework of RIA?

10
 9

Sustainability checks are an integral part of every RIA; they draw on an exhaustive set of indicators (including social, economic, and environmental aspects of sustainability) and track impacts from the short- to long-term.
 8
 7
 6


Sustainability checks lack one of the three criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Sustainability checks lack two of the three criteria.
 2
 1

Sustainability checks do not exist or lack all three criteria.
Sustainability Check
2
The RIA process in Israel is designed to ensure sustainable policymaking. According to the official guide, assessments are to be based on multiple indicators, such as economic, social and environmental data. However, it is still too early to determine whether this is regularly done in practice.

Citations:
Governmental RIA Guide, April 2015, PMO website: http://regulation.gov.il/uploads/reports/7/RIAGUIDE_opt.pdf

Societal Consultation

#18

To what extent does the government consult with societal actors to support its policy?

10
 9

The government successfully motivates societal actors to support its policy.
 8
 7
 6


The government facilitates the acceptance of its policy among societal actors.
 5
 4
 3


The government consults with societal actors.
 2
 1

The government rarely consults with any societal actors.
Negotiating Public Support
6
The critical role of civil society during the “Cast Lead” military operation in 2008 and the growing third sector in Israel inspired government decision 3190, which calls for more societal consultation and intersectoral cooperation in the policy formation process. Civil protests in 2011 brought the issue of social dialogue to the forefront once again, with public complaints targeting obscure governmental budgetary procedures. Moreover, internal pressure to increase information sharing and transparency came from parliament members. However, the government has responded only partially to these demands, mainly through the establishment of a yearly roundtable event at which invited representatives discuss current and future government policies and the launch of designated “open” governmental websites, and by allowing greater participation by NGOs in policy debates. In April 2015, the PMO sought candidates for a new job, the public sharing and collaborations director. As the third sector and alternative media outlets gain a stronger voice in Israeli society, consultations with civil society could take on a greater role in the policy process

Citations:
“Israeli government, civil society and business community,” PMO policy paper (February 2008) (Hebrew)

Limor, Nissan and Avishai, Libat, “Separately and together: Structuring a relationship of cooperation between government and civil society organizations,” JDC publication 2013 (Hebrew).

“Round table interface: Three years summary,” PMO official brochure (August 2011) (Hebrew)

Shapira, Asaf, “Who privatized my country?,” IDI website (March 2010) (Hebrew)
Trachtenberg report website (Hebrew)

“The round table and the tri-sectoral discourse,” Civil leadership website (Hebrew)
“Tender 34067“, Ejobs Website 2015: https://ejobs.gov.il/gius(bD1oZSZjPTI4MA==)/tender/application.do?PARAM=cmNmdHlwZT1waW5zdCZwaW5zdD0wMDUwNTZCRjAwMTExRUU0QjhCOTlGNUEzNjExQ0IzRg%3D%3D

Policy Communication

#12

To what extent does the government achieve coherent communication?

10
 9

The government effectively coordinates the communication of ministries; ministries closely align their communication with government strategy. Messages are factually coherent with the government’s plans.
 8
 7
 6


The government coordinates the communication of ministries. Contradictory statements are rare, but do occur. Messages are factually coherent with the government’s plans.
 5
 4
 3


The ministries are responsible for informing the public within their own particular areas of competence; their statements occasionally contradict each other. Messages are sometimes not factually coherent with the government’s plans.
 2
 1

Strategic communication planning does not exist; individual ministry statements regularly contradict each other. Messages are often not factually coherent with the government’s plans.
Coherent Communication
7
By law, the PMO supervises and coordinates activity between government ministries through a designated division. In 2013, representatives from several ministries wrote the Governmental Cooperation Guide, providing guidelines for interministerial cooperation.

However, annual reports from the State Comptroller reveal major shortcomings in ministerial coordination, highlighting the tension and recrimination that still exists between ministries. Contradictory proclamations from different ministries are not uncommon, resulting from political power struggles within the coalition as well as from the treasury’s stronghold on ministerial budgets and practices. In recent years there has been a shift toward creating a more “open” government and improving the government’s communications vis-a-vis the third sector and the public as well as within the government itself. The new emphasis on sharing and transparency has somewhat ameliorated the technical aspect of the divides, but its influence with regard to policy communication remains unclear.

Citations:
“Open government partnership: Progress report on action goals,” Official state publication (October 2013) (Hebrew).

Ravid, Barak and Lis, Jonathan, “After criticizing the government: Netanyahu fires deputy minister of security Danon,” Haaretz 15.7.2014: http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/politi/1.2377994 (Hebrew).

“Special report regarding the Mount Carmel Forest fire – December 2010 oversights, failures and conclusions,” the state comptroller website 20.6.2012 (Hebrew)

“The governmental guide for sharing: A model for interministerial cooperation,” Official state publication September 2013 (Hebrew).

“The Prime Ministers Division for Coordination follow up and Control,” PMO’s website The Governmental Cooperation Guild – September 2013: http://ihaklai.org.il/

Prime Minister’s Office. Government ICT Authority, “Israel Open Government Implementation Report 2015 – 2017,” https://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/Israel_End-Term-Self-Assessment_2015-2017_EN.pdf

Implementation

#21

To what extent can the government achieve its own policy objectives?

10
 9

The government can largely implement its own policy objectives.
 8
 7
 6


The government is partly successful in implementing its policy objectives or can implement some of its policy objectives.
 5
 4
 3


The government partly fails to implement its objectives or fails to implement several policy objectives.
 2
 1

The government largely fails to implement its policy objectives.
Government Efficiency
6
In 2016, the government began annually coordinating all ministerial reports regarding the implementation of governmental decisions. A team in the PMO breaks every government decision into detailed tasks, and assigns each task to the relevant ministry. Afterward, the ministers and CEOs are required to report progress on these tasks. The first complete report was issued in 2017, addressing all decisions made since 2015 (under the current government). A similar tracking mechanism can be found in “The Monitor,” a civil-public program initiated by the Citizens’ Empowerment Center in Israel to follow and monitor the implementation of governmental decisions. Both reports show a very high rate of implementation (over 70%).

In addition, in accordance with government decision 4085, the PMO publishes yearly working plans for line ministries. The yearly plan for 2014 was the first to publish additional detailed benchmarks for policy goals, a practice that has been repeated since that time. However, as this does not indicate progress with respect to previous years, it is difficult to track long-term progress.
While the Israeli government has been modestly efficient in achieving its policy goals, it has often done so by resorting to a highly controversial emergency law (the Arrangements Law) instead of by enacting regular legislation.

In its 43rd report, released in May 2017, the State Comptroller found that there had been fewer complaints against government bodies in 2016 than in the previous years, but that the percentage of justified complaints had increased, and continues to be high. The National Insurance Institute and the Israel Postal Company received the most criticism from the public.

However, the report also addresses the environment and water as cross-border Israeli-Palestinian issues, and draws the conclusion that there is an “absence of government policy. The government of Israel has not yet formulated a policy for cross-border environmental management in general and for the management of water pollution in particular, and has not decided on any single governmental entity to be charged with this issue and manage it with the responsible bodies. This is in spite of the far-reaching consequences of the issue, such as on Israel’s water reserves, public health and even on the political-security level. Therefore, solutions have been prevented or delayed despite sustained damage to the environment, public health and broad Israeli interest.”

Citations:
“Book of working plans 2014,” PMO website (March 2014) (Hebrew)

“Report on the implementation of governmental decisions 2016,” PMO website, http://www.pmo.gov.il/policyplanning/mimshal/Documents/dm20161607.pdf (Hebrew)

“The Monitor Project,” Citizens’ Empowerment Center, http://www.ceci.org.il/monitor

Zachria, Zvi. ‘New Application Will Allow The Public to Follow the Pace of Laws and Government Decision’s Implementations’ – The Marker, 15.7.2015 (Hebrew): http://www.themarker.com/news/1.2684691

“The State Comptroller and Ombudsman Yearly Report 2016-2015,” May 2017, (Hebrew), http://www.mevaker.gov.il/he/Reports/Report_425/acdfe4f3-7bc6-48b5-b602-7cf3200380b0/2017-67b.pdf

“Israel State Comptroller Report on Water Pollution between the State of Israel and Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip (Unofficial translation of the original Hebrew text by EcoPeace Middle East), Author: Ret. Judge Yossef Haim Shapira, Comptroller (executive summary),” http://ecopeaceme.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Comptroller-Report_2017_Summary_Translation_by_EcoPeace.pdf

To what extent does the organization of government provide incentives to ensure that ministers implement the government’s program?

10
 9

The organization of government successfully provides strong incentives for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 8
 7
 6


The organization of government provides some incentives for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 5
 4
 3


The organization of government provides weak incentives for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 2
 1

The organization of government does not provide any incentives for ministers to implement the government’s program.
Ministerial Compliance
7
Influences from the OECD and global best practice methods have altered Israel’s governmental organization in recent years. Values of transparency, planning, comparability and supervision by a designated PMO unit have been introduced, arguably improving implementation of the overall government program by increasing ministerial accountability vis-a-vis the government and the public. These new actions accompany more traditional compliance mechanisms such as weekly cabinet sessions and interministerial roundtable events.

Structural elements have worked against this trend by imposing a greater degree of centralization. The government’s budget process essentially undermines the authority of individual ministers by creating a negative incentive for cooperation and forcing ministers into a more combative stance against each other. The Arrangements Law (an omnibus law which includes bills and amendments specifically aimed at restricting expenditure and achieve economic goals) is another bold expression of the additional power given to the budgeting department of the Ministry of Finance. This law is often used to cancel or negate reforms or legislation already passed by other ministries, thus undermining their commitment to the government’s program.

Citations:
Blander, Dana, “Hok Ha-Hesderim: Necessary evil or necessarily evil?,” IDI website 14.1.2007 (Hebrew) Salonim, Ori, “Measuring performance in the public service,” The eleventh annual Hertzliya conference official publication (Hebrew)

“Book of working plans 2014,” PMO website (March 2014) (Hebrew

How effectively does the government office/prime minister’s office monitor line ministry activities with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The GO / PMO effectively monitors the implementation activities of all line ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The GO / PMO monitors the implementation activities of most line ministries.
 5
 4
 3


The GO / PMO monitors the implementation activities of some line ministries.
 2
 1

The GO / PMO does not monitor the implementation activities of line ministries.
Monitoring Ministries
7
The basic law on the issue of the government establishes the prime minister’s responsibility over the government’s advancement of policy goals. This includes monitoring and guiding the work of appointed line ministers. In recent years, the PMO has introduced best-practices reforms featuring elements of transparency, sharing and benchmarking that have improved the systematic monitoring of ministries. A special committee formed to review the PMO identified its comparative weakness when dealing with recommendations from the ministries of Finance and Defense, aggravated by the PMO’s tendency to take on the responsibility for executing policies from weaker ministries such as Welfare and Health, thus expending its workload. However, three new professional units have been established in the PMO, each in charge of monitoring related ministries. Moreover, the past two years has seen a major improvement in monitoring with the government’s annual coordination of all ministerial reports on the implementation of governmental decisions. Currently, the PMO thus has strong ministerial oversight capacities.

Citations:
“Reorganization of structure,” Civil Service Commissioner information booklet No. 2, October 2012: http://www.csc.gov.il/DataBases/NewsLetters/newsletter2/Pages/MattePMO.aspx (Hebrew).

“Report on the implementation of governmental decisions 2016,” PMO wesite, http://www.pmo.gov.il/policyplanning/mimshal/Documents/dm20161607.pdf (Hebrew)

“The committee to review the PMO’s,” Official state publication, February 2012, (Hebrew)

Environment and Health Fund, Ministry of Health, “Health and Environment in Israel 2017,” http://www.ehf.org.il/magazines/he/EnvHealthIsrael2017/, (Hebrew)

How effectively do federal and subnational ministries monitor the activities of bureaucracies and executive agencies with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The ministries effectively monitor the implementation activities of all bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 8
 7
 6


The ministries monitor the implementation activities of most bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 5
 4
 3


The ministries monitor the implementation activities of some bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 2
 1

The ministries do not monitor the implementation activities of bureaucracies/executive agencies.
Monitoring Agencies, Bureaucracies
6
As in many other westernized countries, the Israeli government has undergone a process of agencification and outsourcing in recent decades, with the goal of enhancing its regulatory functions and shrinking its direct public-provision role. While ministries’ connections with agencies and NGOs are restrained by contractual agreements as well as by financial and legal restrictions, the content and quality of services do not face similar constraints. Thus, while most ministries sufficiently monitor the agencies under their control, some ministries – notably Education and Welfare – have been criticized for failing to implement government policies through the effective monitoring of services. The movement for improved government in Israel claims that this phenomenon is undermining the efficiency of public services, while others claim that the state-owned enterprises are unnecessary and should be privatized. Various government committees and reports have issued recommendations indicating that ministries’ professional and organizational capabilities should be enhanced, but there is as yet no clear comprehensive plan to deal with such failures.

Israel also suffers from “politicization” in its public services and state-owned companies, such as in the electricity authority that was made subordinate to the minister of energy following a reform in 2015. This decision raised concerns that the appointment of senior officials would be made based upon political rather than professional considerations. This concern was borne out when current Minister of Energy Yuvel Stieniz proposed appointing a close associate to head the electricity authority without holding a tender, even though this candidate lacked the required experience for the position. The appointment was approved by the civil state commissioner, but later overturned by a committee that inspects appointments in state-owned companies.

Citations:
Ben Aeter, Moshe. ‘Who needs the state-own enterprises?’ – Haaretz, 13.04.2016 (Hebrew): http://www.haaretz.co.il/blogs/moshebatar/1.2914354

Bar-Ali, Avi. ‘The Warning Regarding the Politicization of the Electricity Company Are Coming True’ – The Marker, 28.8.2016 (Hebrew): http://www.themarker.com/dynamo/1.3050563

Dagan-Buzaglo, Noga, “Aspects in privatization in the education system,” Adva center 2010. (Hebrew) Detal, Lior, “The Ministry of Education inc.: This is how hundreds of private bodies receive some 11 billion shekels,” TheMarker 5.10.2014:
 http://www.themarker.com/news/education/1.2450395 (Hebrew).

Haber, Carmit, “Managerial culture blocks to implementing open government policy,” The Israel Democracy Institute (March 2013) (Hebrew)

Koren, Ora, “Reform in the public sector: The ministry of Treasury’s authorities will be restrained, employees will receive incentives,” TheMarker website 9.8.2012 (Hebrew)
“Public service provisions using outsourcing,” JDC publication. (Hebrew)

Limor, Nissan, “Regulation and oversight over third sector organizations,” Social security no. 70 (2005),159-187.

“The Ministry of Health,” in Annual report 63c for 2012, the State Comptroller publication 8.5.2013: http://www.mevaker.gov.il/he/Reports/Pages/114.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1 (Hebrew)

Ziv, Amitai, “It’s Time to Privatize the Post Office, 25.1.2018, Haaretz, https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-it-s-time-to-privatize-the-post-office-1.5765464

“The State Comptroller and Ombudsman Yearly Report 2016-2015,” May 2017, (Hebrew), http://www.mevaker.gov.il/he/Reports/Report_425/acdfe4f3-7bc6-48b5-b602-7cf3200380b0/2017-67b.pdf

To what extent does the central government ensure that tasks delegated to subnational self-governments are adequately funded?

10
 9

The central government enables subnational self-governments to fulfill all their delegated tasks by funding these tasks sufficiently and/or by providing adequate revenue-raising powers.
 8
 7
 6


The central government enables subnational governments to fulfill most of their delegated tasks by funding these tasks sufficiently and/or by providing adequate revenue-raising powers.
 5
 4
 3


The central government sometimes and deliberately shifts unfunded mandates to subnational governments.
 2
 1

The central government often and deliberately shifts unfunded mandates to subnational self-governments.
Task Funding
7
Local authorities have three main types of income: local taxes (property tax, fines, tolls) earmarked for financing local services, government funds designated for social and educational services, and governmental balancing grants for basic services that local authorities are otherwise unable to fund. The government’s budgeting procedure for local government is clearly articulated, and includes progressive budgetary support. One major problem in the government’s budgeting procedure was mentioned in the State Comptroller’s 2015 report, which noted that there is no regular procedure in the Interior Ministry for managing the local-authority development budgets.

Over the years, the Ministry of the Interior has expanded its oversight over local authorities as issues of politicization, corruption and management failure have resulted in unwieldy deficits or even municipal bankruptcies. Research focusing on social services shows that although Israel’s local-government funding levels are comparable to other OECD countries on an absolute basis, local authorities in fact receive comparatively less government funds than their peers elsewhere when taking into account the proportion of responsibilities delegated to the local level.

Some recent improvements have been made in this system. The government’s 2017 – 2018 plan set the goal of ensuring local authorities receive adequate funding by increasing financial supervision, increasing budgets and continuing the differentiated funding policy. The government has increased weaker municipalities’ budgetary allocations (total balancing grants have increased from ILS 2.7 billion in 2014 to ILS 3.1 billion in 2017), assigned an accountant to each municipality, assisted in developing local budgets, allocated extra budgetary support to minority municipalities (Bedouins, Druze, etc.), and started a new fund tasked with reducing inequalities between local authorities.

Citations:
Ben Basat, Avi and Dahan, Momi, “Strike in local authorities,” IDI website 15.1.2012 (Hebrew)

Ben Basat, Avi and Dahan, Momi, “The political economy of local authorities,” IDI website 2009 (Hebrew)

Saada, Aria, “Ombudsman’s report 57ב: Budgeting social services for local authorities equality lacking,” Abiliko website 9.7.2010 (Hebrew)


Dahan, Momi, “Why do local authorities hold back pay?,” IDI website 15.11.2009 (Hebrew)
Ben-Bassat, Avi, Dahan, Momi, and Klor, Esteban F., “Representativeness and efficiency in local government,” Jerusalem: IDI 2013, introduction summary in English: http://en.idi.org.il/media/2464644/ Representativeness-Abstract.pdf
“Instructions for local authorities’ budget frame proposal for the year 2012,” Ministry of Interior website (Hebrew)

Informational Leaflet, Local government administration, October 2016, http://www.moin.gov.il/LOCALGOVERNMENT/Documents/Newsletter1.3.pdf

Ministry of Interior Working Plan 2018-18, http://www.moin.gov.il/LOCALGOVERNMENT/local%20authority/CHMap/Documents/%D7%9E%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%93%20%D7%94%D7%A4%D7%A0%D7%99%D7%9D.pdf

To what extent does central government ensure that subnational self-governments may use their constitutional scope of discretion with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The central government enables subnational self-governments to make full use of their constitutional scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 8
 7
 6


Central government policies inadvertently limit the subnational self-governments’ scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 5
 4
 3


The central government formally respects the constitutional autonomy of subnational self-governments, but de facto narrows their scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 2
 1

The central government deliberately precludes subnational self-governments from making use of their constitutionally provided implementation autonomy.
Constitutional Discretion
5
The legal framework for local government is based on the “ultra vires” principle, according to which local government is authorized to act only within the parameters designated by law. While local governments are elected, and some stronger municipalities have been able to expand their policy influence, local authorities often serve merely as a local branch for implementing central-government policy. In light of frequent problems with corruption, management failure and extreme politicization during the 1990s, the Ministry of the Interior has expanded its oversight over municipalities; its powers now allowing it to appoint a permanent outside accountant, cancel approved budgets and even dissolve local councils and nominate professional alternatives. The national attorney general formed a special committee to address corruption problems in 2015. The committee recommended that the heads of local authorities make an effort to increase financial transparency, for instance through the annual declaration of capital owned by senior authority staffers. However, these recommendations have been only partially implemented.

These centralizing steps are both intentional and constitutional, but often interfere with local autonomy. However, in 2014 the Knesset approved an amendment to the municipalities law that defined standards for the designation of strong municipalities. Strong municipalities are given concessions regarding their dependence on the central government in order to enhance the decentralization of authority. A separate amendment to the planning and construction law gives greater discretion (and adequate budgetary allocations) to local planning committees if they have proven to be effective and professional.

Citations:
Authorization of local committees, Planning Authority website, http://iplan.gov.il/Pages/LocalCommittees/vaadot_mekomyot/Competent_committees.aspx

Benita, Rinat, “Local Authorities in Israel“, The Knesset Research Center 17.5.2015: 
http://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/committees/InternalAffairs/Documents/rashpnim.pdf (Hebrew)

Hayman-rysh, Noami, “Changes in the status of local government,” IDI website, October 2008 (Hebrew)

“Municipalities law: Position paper,” IDC, December 2011 (Hebrew) “Government legal proposal 292,” Official legal records 1997 (Hebrew)

Lichtman, Moshe. “It’s not necessary to recommend to reduce mayors term,” 19.9.2016 (Hebrew): http://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=1001152963

To what extent does central government ensure that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services?

10
 9

Central government effectively ensures that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
 8
 7
 6


Central government largely ensures that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
 5
 4
 3


Central government ensures that subnational self-governments realize national minimum standards of public services.
 2
 1

Central government does not ensure that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
National Standards
7
The provision of local services in Israel is dispersed between many agents, including local authorities, NGOs, government and municipal corporations, and institutions such as public and private hospitals. The bulk of social services are provided by local authorities, proportionally funded according to their revenues and share of dependents. While some local authorities fare well and offer supplementary social support, weaker local authorities such as largely Arab or orthodox Jewish municipalities struggle to maintain government standards. This led to an expansion in the central government’s powers during the 2000s, authorizing the Ministry of the Interior to closely supervise and even dissolve councils that fail to deliver proper services, even at the cost of less democratic local representation.

Another solution has been the use of service treaties within local authorities, which aim to standardize local services used by residents while informing residents of their rights and the level of general services in their city or town. A branch of the Ministry of the Interior reviews this process. In recent years, many local authorities have taken part in this process and published information regarding local services on their website. The privatization of social services has led to problems, with weak social ministries struggling to regulate the quality and content of care. Several reports on education services point to ideological conflicts and poor management, as well as an increase in the share of privately financed activities, with consequent increases in inequality.

Another recent move to ensure that local governments meet national standards was the agreement between the Interior, Justice and Finance ministries to amend the Business Licensing Law. This will allow the government to override municipalities when it comes to licensing for power plants, waste-management facilities and water-treatment centers, among other facilities.

In Israel, there are 2,114 separate communities (cities, community settlements, moshavim, kibbutzim, and so forth). Most local authorities are weak and dependent on government handouts and ministry support. A State Comptroller report on local authorities identified “a slew of offenses against planning and building laws.”

For security reasons, Israel established the West Bank barrier over a decade ago, along a route that diverged both from the municipal boundary of the city as determined in June 1967 and from the Green Line. The substantial discrepancies between these courses have led to a governmental vacuum, legal uncertainty and planning chaos. The ACRI has highlighted this issue, and has proposed the establishment of a new Israeli local council there operating under Ministry of the Interior auspices, paired with the investment of significant government funds in these neighborhoods.

Citations:
Arlozerov, Meirav, “First achievement for the German committee: The government will approve the establishment of a regulatory authority over hospitals,” TheMarker 25.5.2014: http://www.themarker.com/news/health/1.2330341 (Hebrew).

Bersler-Gonen, Rotem,“Service treaty in local government in Israel – review,” Ministry of the interior website (December 2011) (Hebrew).

Dagan-Buzaglo, Noga,“Aspects in privatization in the education system,” Adva Center 2010. (Hebrew)

Detal, Lior,“The Ministry of Education inc.: This is how hundreds of private bodies receive some 11 billion shekels,” TheMarker 5.10.2014: http://www.themarker.co m/news/education/1.2450395 (Hebrew).

Paz־Fuchs, Amir and Bensimhon־Peleg, Sarit, “On the seam between the public and the private: privatization and nationalization in Israel: Annual report 2013,” The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, 2014 (Hebrew)

Specktor, Shiri, “Social rights and personal social services in Israel,” The Knesset Research Center 21.10.2010: http://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m03158.pdf (Hebrew)

Local government in Israel, Knesset website: http://www.knesset.gov.i l/lexicon/eng/LocalAuthorities_eng. htm

“On nominated councils and democracy,” Hithabrut website (NGO) (Hebrew)

The citizen’s empowerment center in Israel: the implantation of the movement’s decision to establish a regulatory authority over hospitals – review – April 2016: http://www.ceci.org.il/sites/citizens/UserContent/files/monitorreport/monitor%201622.pdf

Schindler, Max,“NO MORE ‘NOT IN MY BACKYARD’ STANCES FOR LOCAL MUNICIPALITIES,” the Jerusalem Post online, 18.10.2017,
http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/No-more-Not-in-my-backyard-stances-for-local-municipalities-507780

Marmor, Dror, “Israel’s local government system breeds corruption,” Globes, 04.12.2017, http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-israels-local-government-system-breeds-corruption-1001214368

ACRI, “Implications of Establishing a Separate Local Authority for the Neighborhoods Beyond the Barrier in Jerusalem,” https://www.acri.org.il/en/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Separate-Municiplaity-Position-Paper-1.pdf

Ir Amim, Displaced in their own city. The Impact of Israeli policy in East Jerusalem on the Palestinian neighborhoods of the city beyond the separation barrier, June 2015, http://www.ir-amim.org.il/sites/default/files/akurim_ENG_for%20web_0.pdf

“The State Comptroller and Ombudsman Yearly Report 2016-2015,” May 2017, (Hebrew), http://www.mevaker.gov.il/he/Reports/Report_425/acdfe4f3-7bc6-48b5-b602-7cf3200380b0/2017-67b.pdf

Adaptability

#22

To what extent does the government respond to international and supranational developments by adapting domestic government structures?

10
 9

The government has appropriately and effectively adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 8
 7
 6


In many cases, the government has adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, the government has adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational.
 2
 1

The government has not adapted domestic government structures no matter how useful adaptation might be.
Domestic Adaptability
7
Following OECD and academic recommendations, the Israeli government advances various administrative reforms regarding regulatory burdens, decision-making and long-term planning. Periodic progress reports show gradual improvement in the dissemination of information as well as in decision-making. The government continues to adapt its domestic structures to international and supranational developments in an ongoing and constructive process. The Ministry of Economy and Industry produces an annual report that reviews progress with regard to implementation of the OECD’s recommendations. For example, in 2015 the report presented the progress made in the ability to regulate the imposition of labor laws. Moreover, in 2015, Israel signed the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters of the OECD and ratified it in 2016. Many other agreements, such as the enforcement of the anti-bribery convention, have been signed, with policies adapted in Israel in accordance with OECD standards.

Citations:
“Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters”, Ministry of Finance, http://mof.gov.il/en/InternationalAffairs/InternationalTaxation/ExchangeInformationAgreements/Pages/MultilateralConvention.aspx

OECD, “OECD Economic Surveys Israel,” January 2016, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/1016031e.pdf?expires=1518382235&id=id&accname=ocid54016459&checksum=AB0A7D48A352C994DB07DFA04F611FCB

http://mof.gov.il/chiefecon/internationalconnections/oecd/oecd%20enterp.pdf

“OECD economic surveys: Israel,” OECD publication (December 2013).

OECD, “OECD Studies on SMEs and Entrepreneurship SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Israel 2016,”

“Progress report on the implementation of the OECD recommendations: Labor market and social policies,” Ministry of industry, trade and labor official report (June 2012)

Slosbarg, Itay. ‘Israel is joining on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters of the OECD’ – Funder website, 7.9.2016 (Hebrew): http://www.funder.co.il/article.aspx?idx=70633

“There are currently more than 200 ongoing investigations of corruption and bribery around the world,” Globes, 18.7.2017, http://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=1001197649

“Working plans book for 2014,” official state publication (March 2014) (Hebrew).
Ministry of economy report – Review on the progression on OECD’s recommendation implementation – 2015 (Hebrew): http://brookdaleheb.jdc.org.il/_Uploads/PublicationsFiles/OECD2015_SocialPolicies_HEB.pdf

To what extent is the government able to collaborate effectively in international efforts to foster global public goods?

10
 9

The government can take a leading role in shaping and implementing collective efforts to provide global public goods. It is able to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress.
 8
 7
 6


The government is largely able to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. Existing processes enabling the government to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress are, for the most part, effective.
 5
 4
 3


The government is partially able to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. Processes designed to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress show deficiencies.
 2
 1

The government does not have sufficient institutional capacities to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. It does not have effective processes to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress.
International Coordination
5
In conjunction with its OECD accession in 2010, Israel created government agencies designed to coordinate, enforce and monitor administrative changes. Reforms aiming to improve interministerial cooperation and reinforce policy monitoring are still in the early stages of implementation. A 2015 report examined Israel’s global cooperation in the field of research and development (R&D), looking at the country’s administrative and economic capabilities. It found that while Israel is considered to be a leading R&D actor worldwide, more coordination and improvements with regard to accessible information and standardization capabilities are warranted. The Israel Innovation Authority decided to stop providing grants to high-tech companies in 2016 due to budget cuts.

Citations:
Avital, Yanicm, “Which country spend the most on research and development among OECD countires?, GeekTime, 15.7.2015. http://www.geektime.co.il/israel-leads-spending-on-rd-in-oecd-countries/ (Hebrew).

“Israel in the OECD,” Minister of Treasury formal report (2010) (Hebrew).

Kaufman, Dan and Marom, Yael, “Evaluation of international cooperation programs in R&D in Israel,” The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies (May 2011) (Hebrew).

Orbah, Mair. “The Ministry of Economy has stopped giving grants to High-Tech companies,” Calcalist, 11.8.2016. http://www.calcalist.co.il/internet/articles/0,7340,L-3695401,00.html

“Progress report on the implementation of the OECD recommendations: Labor market and social policies,” Ministry of Industry, trade and labor official report (June 2012).

Organizational Reform

#10

To what extent do actors within the government monitor whether institutional arrangements of governing are appropriate?

10
 9

The institutional arrangements of governing are monitored regularly and effectively.
 8
 7
 6


The institutional arrangements of governing are monitored regularly.
 5
 4
 3


The institutional arrangements of governing are selectively and sporadically monitored.
 2
 1

There is no monitoring.
Self-monitoring
7
The Israeli government has installed various executive-branch institutions, both internally and externally, tasked with monitoring its activities and performance in areas such as procedures, financial transfers and human resources. For example, the Accountant General regularly audits financial decisions in ministries. The Civil Service Commission ensures that internal due processes are followed, and oversees human resources. However, in recent Knesset discussion regarding reforms to the Commission’s work, critics have asserted that the Commission’s work is inefficient. The PMO monitors implementation of the State Comptroller’s recommendations as well as the internal accounting units in each ministry. Supplementary mechanisms for self-regulation include protocols and guidelines governing daily practice.
Most important in this area was the Governability Committee that was established in 2011 and submitted its policy recommendations in 2013. This committee focused on reassessing the government’s organizational deficits and challenges. The government has since that time ratified the conclusions and implemented most of them.

Citations:
“About: the Accountant General,” Ministry of finance website (Hebrew): http://mof.gov.il/AG/About/Pages/About.aspx


“About the Inspection General for State Comptroller Affairs,” PMO website (Hebrew): http://www.pmo.gov.il/BikoretHamedina/Pages/Default.aspx

Government Decision 482: adoption of the recommendations of the governability committee, 30.6.213, http://www.pmo.gov.il/Secretary/GovDecisions/2013/Pages/des482.aspx

“Information security management and survivability of internet and computer infrastructure for government offices,” state comptroller yearly publication 63b 2013: http://www.mevaker.gov.il/he/Reports/Report_95/8e003e9a-3404-4626-a2ab-eddb638549ed/8254.pdf (Hebrew)

“Notice number 3,” Civil service commission website (Hebrew)“About: Civil Service Commission,” Civil service commission website (Hebrew): http://www.csc.gov.il/About/Pages/Roles.aspx

Protocol – The Special Committee – Reforms in the Civil Service Commission: https://oknesset.org/committee/meeting/11826/

“Rules, procedures and guidelines for CEOs in the civil service,” Civil service commission 2013: http://www.csc.gov.il/DataBases/Rules/Documents/BrochureCEOs.pdf (Hebrew)
“The internal audit law 1992,” Official legislation (Hebrew)

To what extent does the government improve its strategic capacity by changing the institutional arrangements of governing?

10
 9

The government improves its strategic capacity considerably by changing its institutional arrangements.
 8
 7
 6


The government improves its strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
 5
 4
 3


The government does not improve its strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
 2
 1

The government loses strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
Institutional Reform
7
Reforms regarding government planning, regulations, innovation, information sharing and performance evaluation are based on principles of decentralization, privatization and regulation. While many structural reforms are pursued with the aim of improving decision-making in the interest of the common good, some elements of the government administration still perform insufficiently, including overly complex bureaucratic arrangements, and a lack of adequate policy planning design due to politicization. As seen in the case of local municipalities, modern management tools and monitoring agencies are still unable to effectively tackle entrenched political attitudes and centralized organizational cultures, under which designated authorities and cabinets bypass formal structures in order to accelerate planning processes.

Citations:
Arlozerov, Merav, “Israeli government; The reform that will end the Treasury’s single rule; Will lose a major part of its authorities,” TheMarker 13.2.2013 (Hebrew)

Dahan, Momi, “Why do local authorities hold back pay?,” IDI website 15.11.2009 (Hebrew)

“Employing and management in the public service,” Conference in the name of Eli Horovitz 2013: https://www.idi.org.il/media/2803303/public%20service%20b.pdf (Hebrew)

Milman, Omri, “Mayors to Kahlon: ‘If you would promote the differential allocation we won’t build in our territory’“, Calcalist 2.9.2015

“The CEO of the social-economic cabinet approved the establishment of an authority for technological innovation,” Minister of the Economy website 15.9.2014: http://economy.gov.il/Publications/PressReleases/Pages/CabinetForTechnologicalInnovation.aspx (Hebrew)

Vigoda, Eran and Penny, Yuval, “Public sector performance in Israel” (October 2001), (Hebrew)

OECD, “Multi level Governance Reforms. Overview of OECD country experiences,” 2017, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/0417051e.pdf?expires=1518432676&id=id&accname=ocid54016459&checksum=BDF175C37A650FABDE6CC93D0FFBAB0E
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