Almost all public entities have a unit for EU affairs. As expressed earlier, strategic planning units are included in all ministries. Some pilot studies have been conducted in the public administration, including municipal governments, under the supervision of the Department of Strategic Planning of the State Planning Organization. Transparency and accountability are part of the administrative culture, at least conceptually.
Several general and specific projects have been developed between Turkey and the European Union, aimed at increasing human resources capacity and harmonizing legislation with the acquis. The UNDP (LAR 2), the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) and the Matra Pre-accession Projects Program, which address primary and secondary legislation, public administrative reform, education, justice and home affairs, health, environment, public works and more are major mechanisms aimed at adapting central and local governmental structures to supranational developments.
With respect to judicial reform, the government has created the new Higher Council of Judges and Prosecutors, modeling it on similar institutions in Italy, France, Spain, Poland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden.
Due to the unresolved Cyprus problem, France’s opposition to Turkey’s full EU membership, and domestic resistance to reforms, Turkey process toward EU membership slowed in the period under review. However, membership negotiations are continuing, allowing reforms to be grounded in the framework of the aquis communautarie of the European Union. The following chapters of negotiation have been opened: science and research, company law, copyright and related rights, environment, statistics, trans-European networks, enterprise and industry policy, consumer and health protection, financial control, information society and media, taxation and free movement of capital.