Luxembourg

   

Social Policies

#4
Key Findings
With a generous social safety net, Luxembourg falls into the top ranks internationally (rank 4) for its social policies. Its score on this measure has improved by 0.1 point relative to 2014.

Education spending is high, but children of migrants are disproportionately pushed to non-university schooling tracks. A secondary-education reform is planned for 2017. The welfare system is comprehensive. In response to fast-rising housing costs, a new housing allowance has been introduced.

Child-care services have been expanded, and child benefits increased. Women’s labor-market participation rate is relatively low but rising. The health care system is generally of high quality. System costs are high, but out-of-pocket expenses very low.

Pension benefits are quite high, but further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability. More than half of the country’s residents have a migrant background. After vigorous rejection of a referendum proposal to give non-citizens voting rights, the government is preparing a new naturalization act.

Education

#29

To what extent does education policy deliver high-quality, equitable and efficient education and training?

10
 9

Education policy fully achieves the criteria.
 8
 7
 6


Education policy largely achieves the criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Education policy partially achieves the criteria.
 2
 1

Education policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Education Policy
5
The country’s education policy must deal with the challenges of a multilingual society and a high proportion of migrant students. The education system is particularly marked by its insistence on early selection: after six years of primary school, students face a crucial junction and must choose one of two academic tracks, general or technical. There is a marked division between Luxembourg nationals and migrant students, as migrants generally (especially the Portuguese minority) struggle with languages and often end up in the technical level (secondaire technique), which affects their progress toward a university education. Recent studies have shown that migrants are four times less likely to transfer to the higher-level university-oriented school track (enseignement secondaire) than Luxembourgish nationals. To avoid this, often more affluent migrants will send their children to a reputable international school. This leads to yet another division between high-income and low-income migrants. A reform of secondary education is being drafted for 2017.

Students in Luxembourg are very mobile and often study abroad, acquiring new knowledge and language skills. Overall, 68% of tertiary-level students study abroad, while 57% of all students in Luxembourg are foreign (an increase from 54% in 2013). Luxembourg has the OECD’s highest level of education expenditure per student ($42,435 per student in 2016), and the smallest average class size (15 primary school students per class and 19 secondary school students per class).

An increase in student numbers of more than 10% over the last five years will require more schools and more qualified teachers, especially teachers with expertise of working with pupils with special needs.

Key government reforms currently being developed include the creation of the Luxembourg Center for Educational Testing to link existing teacher training institutes, an increase in school autonomy combined with institutional development plans, the establishment of two institutes to support students with learning disabilities and behavior problems, the establishment of a center for political education, strengthening connections between kindergartens and primary schools, improving inter- and post-school student transitions, increasing teacher and school flexibility, increasing annual training hours for teachers to 16 hours in 2017, promoting native language instruction, and opening a (free of charge) International School in Differdange in 2016.

Citations:
“Bildungsabschluss im Tertiärbereich.” Eurostat, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=de&pcode=tgs00109&plugin=1. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2015.” Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, www.men.public.lu/fr/support/recherche/index.php?q=Bildungsbericht. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Chiffres clés de l’enseignement supérieur 2015/ 2016. Portail de la statistique, 2015. www.statistiques.public.lu/fr/actualites/conditions-sociales/enseignement/2016/09/20160926/chiffrescles201516.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators. OECD, 2012. www.oecd.org/edu/EAG%202012_e-book_EN_200912.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators. OECD, 2016. www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/education-at-a-glance-2016/luxembourg_eag-2016-69-en#page1. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Education at a Glance Interim Report: Update of Employment and Educational Attainment Indicators. OECD, 2015. www.oecd.org/edu/EAG-Interim-report.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Education GPS - Luxembourg.” OECD, gpseducation.oecd.org/CountryProfile?primaryCountry=LUX&treshold=10&topic=PI. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Ein neues Bildungswesen für Luxemburg.” Forum.lu, Mar. 2012, www.forum.lu/pdf/artikel/7380_316_UNEL.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Eng Schoul déi sech këmmert: vers une culture de maintien scolaire dans les écoles.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, 16 July 2015, www.gouvernement.lu/5069738/16-meisch-maintienscolaire?context=3422896. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

La réforme du lycée. Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2016. www.men.public.lu/catalogue-publications/themes-transversaux/dossiers-presse/2015-2016/160714-reforme-lycee.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Le système d’éducation secondaire luxembourgeois: une analyse coûts/bénéfices. Chambre de Commerce Luxembourg, 2014. www.cc.lu/uploads/tx_userccpublications/A_T_16_Oct_2014.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Les chiffres de la rentrée 2016/ 2017. Ministère de l’Education nationale, 2016. www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/articles/communiques-conference-presse/2016/09/13-chiffres-rentree/chiffres.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Luxembourg.” OECD Better Life Index, www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/countries/luxembourg/. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

L’Enseignement luxembourgeois en chiffres. Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2012. www.men.public.lu/catalogue-publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/couts-et-financements/couts-12/couts-fin-12.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Meisch, Claude. “«Très souvent, les langues sont un facteur d’échec».” L’essentiel, 24 Jan. 2014, www.lessentiel.lu/fr/news/luxembourg/story/12031031. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Mir schwätzen Zukunft.” Ministre de l’éducation nationale, zukunft.men.lu. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Neues Kindergeld in Luxemburg gilt ab 1. August.” L’essentiel, 1 July 2016, www.lessentiel.lu/de/luxemburg/story/14418083. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Pour glaner son diplôme, le chemin peut être aride.” Luxemburger Wort, 18 Aug. 2015, www.wort.lu/fr/luxembourg/chaque-annee-1-600-eleves-decrochent-de-l-ecole-pour-glaner-son-diplome-le-chemin-peut-etre-aride-55d32b1f0c88b46a8ce5e8ac. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Social Inclusion

#2

To what extent does social policy prevent exclusion and decoupling from society?

10
 9

Policies very effectively enable societal inclusion and ensure equal opportunities.
 8
 7
 6


For the most part, policies enable societal inclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 5
 4
 3


For the most part, policies fail to prevent societal exclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 2
 1

Policies exacerbate unequal opportunities and exclusion from society.
Social Inclusion Policy
9
Luxembourg’s strong economic performance over the last three decades has provided successive governments with the means to build an outstanding welfare system, which includes generous insurance plans, benefit programs and public service provision. Most recently, the health care sector has been significantly expanded. Replacement revenue levels exceed Scandinavian standards. Since the 1970s, the welfare system has been consistently expanded, even when neighboring countries cut public welfare expenditure.

Over the decade, rental prices have risen by 43%. The government recognizes the challenge that this presents to households and is supporting the construction of about 11,000 new housing units. This should ease the pressure of inward migration and population growth, which grew by 2% in 2015. The government has allocated about €600 million between 2010 and 2025 for this housing program. Despite the scarcity of social housing, only 29% of the new housing units are intended for rental and 81% for sale to low-income groups. However, this will exclude the working poor and welfare beneficiaries with low credit ratings.

A delayed new housing allowance was finally introduced in 2016. The housing allowance will benefit around 19,000 low-income households, providing a monthly subsidy of €124 for a single household and a €174 for a family with two children. The allowance acknowledges the importance of social housing, especially in providing affordable rental properties for low-income people.

Nevertheless, the quantity of social housing is still below the European average. Some municipalities have decided to impose a special tax on unoccupied houses to create disincentives for leaving spaces empty and encouraging existing residential property to be rented or sold. In addition to local programs, public social housing companies (Fonds du Logement and SNHBM) are intensifying their activities. The National Housing Fund was recently exposed to criticism following an audit and is currently being reformed with an eye to establishing effective quality control measures.

Citations:
“Erwerbstätigenquote nach Geschlecht.” Eurostat, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=de&pcode=t2020_10&plugin=. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

How’s Life in Luxembourg 2014? OECD Better Life Initiative, 2014. www.oecd.org/statistics/BLI%202014%20Luxembourg%20country%20report.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Income and living conditions.” Eurostat, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Le Fonds du logement, www.fondsdulogement.lu/fdl/home-de-j_6. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, www.liser.lu. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Luxembourg.” OECD Better Life Index, www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/countries/luxembourg/. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Paramètres sociaux. Ministère de la Sécurité Sociale, 2016. www.mss.public.lu/publications/parametres_sociaux/ps_20160801.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministère de la Famille, de l’Intégration et à la Grande Région, 2015. www.gouvernement.lu/5962520/2015-rapport-activite-snas.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministère de la Famille, de l’Intégration et à la Grande Région, 2016. www.mfi.public.lu/publications/01_rapports-activite/rapp_act_2015.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

SNHBM, snhbm.lu/index.php?p=52. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Social Expenditure.” OECD, stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=SOCX_AGG. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Subvention de Loyer 2016. Ministère d’État, 2016. data.legilux.public.lu/file/eli-etat-leg-recueil-subvention_loyer-20151224-fr-pdf.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Health

#4

To what extent do health care policies provide high-quality, inclusive and cost-efficient health care?

10
 9

Health care policy achieves the criteria fully.
 8
 7
 6


Health care policy achieves the criteria largely.
 5
 4
 3


Health care policy achieves the criteria partly.
 2
 1

Health care policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Health Policy
8
Luxembourg’s well equipped hospitals offer a wide range of services, including high-end, expensive treatments and waiting lists are rare, except for some services that are highly demanded. Luxembourg also has the highest share of patient transfers to other countries for treatments within the European Union. Due to the country’s small size and the absence of a university hospital, it is not possible to provide all medical treatments. Necessary medical transfers to neighboring countries have the side effect of being beneficial for the finances of the state health insurance program, as those services are in general less expensive abroad.
Drawbacks of the Luxembourg system include the aforementioned lack of a university hospital and the individual nature of doctor’s contracts and treatment responsibilities. Most resident general practitioners and medical specialists sign contracts with individual hospitals and are only responsible for a certain number of patients (Belegbetten), which prevents any sort of group or collective treatment options. Therefore, some hospitals have re-organized to keep doctors’ offices in-house without changing their status as independent physicians (Belegarzt).
However, at a cost of $5,160 per person per year, Luxembourg’s health care system is the 7th most expensive system within the OECD group. The high cost of the health care system is due to high wages, a high ratio of technical medical equipment to residents and low out-of-pocket costs for patients. Furthermore, authorities have repeatedly tried to limit the range of medical treatments offered by general hospitals in favor of providing treatment through specialized health care centers.

Citations:
Eurostat regional yearbook 2016. Eurostat, 2016. ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/7604195/KS-HA-16-001-EN-N.pdf/76c007e9-6c1d-435a-97f8-e5ea700aa149. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Health at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators. OECD, 2015. apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s22177en/s22177en.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Mémorial A n° 60 de 2008. Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2008. legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/memorial/2008/60#page=2. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport Social National 2015. Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2015. www.mfi.public.lu/publications/Solidarite/RSN-2015.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Families

#12

To what extent do family support policies enable women to combine parenting with participation in the labor market?

10
 9

Family support policies effectively enable women to combine parenting with employment.
 8
 7
 6


Family support policies provide some support for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 5
 4
 3


Family support policies provide only few opportunities for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 2
 1

Family support policies force most women to opt for either parenting or employment.
Family Policy
8
Luxembourg’s corporatist welfare regime has gradually evolved over the years to a more universal system with a high degree of anonymity of patients. One indicator is the shift from a predominant transfer system to transfer and service system, with specific provisions for children and the elderly.
Luxembourg has positively responded to its changing demographics by adapting family policy measures. In this context, the government has pushed for policies to offer a wide range of child rearing allowances and child care services, such as child benefits, maternity leave, parental leave, birth and post-birth allowances.
Furthermore, indirect help is also offered, such as subsidized mortgage interest rates, depending on the number of children at home. In general, Luxembourg offers the highest level of child benefits within the European Union. Today, it is one of the four leading EU member states in terms of family benefits. It has made sustainable improvements in terms of family-friendly workplace arrangements, while gender-based job segmentation and the gender pay gap have decreased.
When compared internationally, Luxembourg’s tax policy is family-friendly. Women’s labor-market participation has considerably increased since the launch of the European Employment Strategy. At the same time, the government has invested heavily in child care facilities, with the aim of making it easier for women to work.
Yet, despite a strong increase in recent years, women’s workforce participation rate remains comparatively low at 65% compared to an EU average of 64.3%, with Luxembourg ranked 17 out of 28 EU member states.

Luxembourg’s public child care institutions include the “Maisons Relais” or general daycare centers; the “éducation précoce,” a third preschool year and “foyers de jour” or after-school centers. Since August 2016, there will be one fixed allowance per child, regardless of the family composition. Child bonuses and child allowances will be paid in one sum, €265 per child. The government also plans to cut education and maternity allowances as part of this new coherent family policy. The Chamber of Labor has criticized this new policy, noting that a family with two children would lose 19% of its annual benefits through the 2016 reform. To compensate for this decline in financial support, the government intends to offer free child care facilities for one to three-year-olds, early language support and intercultural education for migrants.

Citations:
AVIS II/ 59/ 2015. Chambre des salariés, 2015. www.csl.lu/component/rubberdoc/doc/2894/raw. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Bousselin, Audrey, and Jean-Claude Ray. Participation des mères au marché du travail et disponibilité locale des services collectifs de garde d’enfants. Application au Luxembourg. Les Presses de Sciences Po, 2012.

Bradshaw, Jonathan, and Naomi Finch. A comparison of Child Benefit packages in 22 countries - Research Report No 174. Department for Work and Pensions (UK), 2002. eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/73510/1/Document.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Employment rate by sex.” Eurostat, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=t2020_10&language=en. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Employment rates for selected population groups 2004 – 14.” Eurostat, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/File:Employment_rates_for_selected_population_groups,_2004–14_(%25)_YB16.png. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“European employment strategy.” European Commission, ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=101. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Les chiffres de la rentrée 2016/ 2017. Ministre de l’Éducation nationale, 2016. www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/articles/communiques-conference-presse/2016/09/13-chiffres-rentree/chiffres.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Nei Perspektivë fir Lëtzebuerg.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, 14 Oct. 2014, www.gouvernement.lu/4090822/14-bettel-declaration. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Politische Leitlinien des Haushalts 2015: Auswirkungen auf die Bürger.” Le portail de l’administration luxembourgeoise, 14 Oct. 2014, www.guichet.public.lu/citoyens/de/actualites/2014/10/14-budget-2015/index.html. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Prestations familiales. Ministère de la Sécurité Sociale, 2014. www.isog.public.lu/islux/fileadmin/isssg/gif/PF_gif_2014/PF-2014.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministre de l’Éducation nationale, 2016. www.men.public.lu/catalogue-publications/themes-transversaux/rapport-activites-ministere/2015/1-fr.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministère de l’Egalité des Chances, 2016. www.gouvernement.lu/5752341/2015-rapport-activite-mega.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Regards 03 - L’emploi des femmes. Statec, 2014. www.statistiques.public.lu/catalogue-publications/regards/2014/PDF-03-2014.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Pensions

#11

To what extent does pension policy realize goals of poverty prevention, intergenerational equity and fiscal sustainability?

10
 9

Pension policy achieves the objectives fully.
 8
 7
 6


Pension policy achieves the objectives largely.
 5
 4
 3


Pension policy achieves the objectives partly.
 2
 1

Pension policy does not achieve the objectives at all.
Pension Policy
7
Luxembourg’s pension plans offer one of the highest replacement rates within the OECD and provide a high living standard for the elderly. The poverty in old age rate is lower than that for families and even more so if single parent families are considered. However, pensioners must contribute financially to the health care insurance system and are fully taxed.

Luxembourg has not enacted a rigorous austerity policy, but has slightly changed its pension regime and general employment rules. The OECD and the European Commission have urged Luxembourg to reform its pension system to ensure its long-term sustainability.

The financial sustainability of the pension system is premised on continued population growth. However, Luxembourg’s current population growth is driven by immigration and its strong economic performance. Whether the economy will remain strong and the number of contributors continue to increase over the next decades is uncertain.

Citations:
“Assurance pension.” Ministère de la Sécurité Sociale, www.isog.public.lu/islux/assurance-pension/series-statistiques.html. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité 2015. Ministère de la Sécurité Sociale, 2016. www.mss.public.lu/publications/rapport_activite_mss/rap_act_2015.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport général sur la sécurité sociale 2015. Ministère de la Sécurité Sociale, 2015. www.mss.public.lu/publications/rapport_general/rg2015/rg_2015.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Régime général d’assurance pension. Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Pension, 2015. www.cnap.lu/fileadmin/file/cnap/publications/Publications_CNAP/Regime_General/2015_RG_Bilan_Cpte_exploit._commentaires.pdf#pageMode=bookmarks. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Integration

#15

How effectively do policies support the integration of migrants into society?

10
 9

Cultural, education and social policies effectively support the integration of migrants into society.
 8
 7
 6


Cultural, education and social policies seek to integrate migrants into society, but have failed to do so effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Cultural, education and social policies do not focus on integrating migrants into society.
 2
 1

Cultural, education and social policies segregate migrant communities from the majority society.
Integration Policy
8
Since the Second World War, Luxembourg’s migrant population has grown continuously. Today, around 85% of migrants are citizens of the European Union and 91% of migrants are of European descent. Most other highly qualified migrants have come from Japan, the United States and Canada. Luxembourg has one of the highest economically performing migrant populations, with an high proportion of economic migrants coming from other among OECD countries and a very small proportion of economically weak third-country nationals. More than 50% of the total resident population in Luxembourg has a migrant background.

All foreigners, EU citizens and third-country citizens can vote and run for office in local elections, provided they fulfill certain residency requirements and are registered on the electoral list. Conditions for the inscription have been eased over the years. However, the fact that the meetings of local councils are held in Luxembourgish (with written reports in German, French or English), constitutes an impediment for resident foreign citizens. Non-nationals’ interest in political participation at the local level remains low. During the period under review, voting rights for resident foreigners in parliamentary elections was a cross-party issue, which ultimately was put to public vote in the June 2015 consultative referendum. However, an absolute majority of 78.02% voted against granting full foreigner voting rights, putting a preliminary end to this ambitious project. The next referendum is not expected before 2017. In light of this experience, the government wants to implement a new Naturalization Act in 2017 to facilitate foreigners’ civil participation in public life.

Citations:
Chaloff, Jonathan, and Georges Lemaître. Managing Highly-Skilled Labour Migration: A Comparative Analysis of Migration Policies and Challenges in OECD Countries. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 2009. www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/managing-highly-skilled-labour-migration_225505346577. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Demandes de protection internationale par mois 2010 - 2016.” Statec, www.statistiques.public.lu/stat/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=12911&IF_Language=fra&MainTheme=2&FldrName=2&RFPath=12447. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Endergebnis des Referendums: Ein deutliches Nein in allen drei Fragen.” Luxemburger Wort, 7 June 2015, www.wort.lu/de/politik/endergebnis-des-referendums-steht-fest-ein-deutliches-nein-in-allen-drei-fragen-557481770c88b46a8ce5ad18. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Luxembourg 2014.” Migrant Integration Policy Index, www.mipex.eu/luxembourg. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Nationalitätsgesetz: Reform soll am 1. April 2017 in Kraft treten.” Luxemburger Wort, 21 Sept. 2016, www.wort.lu/de/politik/nationalitaetsgesetz-reform-soll-am-1-april-2017-in-kraft-treten-57e257a8ac730ff4e7f66b96. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Plan d’action d’intégration (NAPICD). Luxembourg: Office Luxembourgeois de l’Accueil et de l’Integration, 2010.

Plan d’action national pluri-annuel d’intégration et de lutte contre les discriminations 2010 – 2014. Ministère de la Famille et de l’Intégration, 2010. www.olai.public.lu/fr/publications/programmes-planactions-campagnes/plan/olai_plan_daction_fr.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport d’activité OLAI 2015. Office Luxembourgeois de l’Accueil et de l’Integration, 2015. www.olai.public.lu/fr/publications/rapports/rapports_activite_olai/rapport_activite_olai_15.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Règlement grand-ducal du 15 novembre 2011 relatif à l’organisation et au fonctionnement des commissions consultatives communales d’intégration.” Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 15 Nov. 2011, legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2011/11/15/n2/jo. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Secondary education - classic and technical.” Ministre de l’éducation nationale, www.men.public.lu/fr/themes-transversaux/scolarisation-eleves-etrangers/schooling-foreign-pupils/secondary-education/index.html. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Statistiques concernant la protection internationale au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes, 2016. www.gouvernement.lu/6372664/Statistiques-protection-internationale-09-2016.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Safe Living

#8

How effectively does internal security policy protect citizens against security risks?

10
 9

Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks very effectively.
 8
 7
 6


Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks more or less effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Internal security policy does not effectively protect citizens against security risks.
 2
 1

Internal security policy exacerbates the security risks.
Safe Living Conditions
8
Luxembourg ranked 19 out of 221 cities worldwide in both the 2015 and 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, while the capital was also judged to be the safest destination for international assignments. A further 100 police officers will be recruited in 2017 to enhance public security and regain trust. In addition, 51 police stations will be merged into a number of larger, more efficient units as part of an ongoing police reform program.

Citations:
Rapport d’activité 2015 de la police grand ducale. Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2016. www.police.public.lu/fr/publications/statistiques-2015/rapport-activite-2015.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Regards 08: sur l’évaluation du travail de la police. Statec, 2014. www.statistiques.public.lu/catalogue-publications/regards/2014/PDF-08-2014.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Remesch, Steve. “Die Sicherheitskräfte ziehen Bilanz: Drogenbekämpfung im Blickpunkt.” Luxemburger Wort, 15 Apr. 2016, www.wort.lu/de/lokales/die-sicherheitskraefte-ziehen-bilanz-drogenbekaempfung-im-blickpunkt-57113b9c1bea9dff8fa76347. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“STATEC report: 1 in 3 residents expects to be burgled.” Luxemburger Wort, 11 Sept. 2014, www.wort.lu/en/luxembourg/statec-report-1-in-3-residents-expects-to-be-burgled-54118172b9b3988708062fad. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Global Inequalities

#2

To what extent does the government demonstrate an active and coherent commitment to promoting equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries?

10
 9

The government actively and coherently engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. It frequently demonstrates initiative and responsibility, and acts as an agenda-setter.
 8
 7
 6


The government actively engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. However, some of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 5
 4
 3


The government shows limited engagement in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. Many of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 2
 1

The government does not contribute (and often undermines) efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries.
Global Social Policy
9
The Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs manages almost 74% of the total ODA budget, while the remaining 19.35% is managed by 91 accredited NGOs.

Since 2000, the country’s development agency, Luxembourg Development Cooperation (Lux-Development), has exceeded the U.N. industrialized nation contribution target of 0.7% of GDP for development projects. The country has focused its sustainable development aid policy on poverty eradication and energy saving programs as well as on programs to reduce carbon emissions.

CERCLE, an NGO umbrella organization, has stated that budgetary rigor will also apply to NGO development aid policies in the upcoming years, reducing national co-financing costs along with NGO administrative costs.
Luxembourg’s development assistance targets local initiatives providing education and training in the fields of health care, water treatment, sewage, local economic development and infrastructure projects. About 15% of the cooperation budget is aims to provide humanitarian support, including emergency assistance and reconstruction aid, following EU and OECD guidelines.

Luxembourg is an important actor in the microfinance sector, hosting firms that offer a full range of microfinance products, and supports more than 50% of the global funds in this area.

Citations:
Annual Report 2015. Luxembourg Development Cooperation Agency, 2016. luxdev.lu/files/documents/RAPANN_2015_UK_vF_2.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Development Assistance Committee (DAC) - Peer Review 2012. OECD, 2012. www.oecd.org/dac/peer-reviews/LUXEMBOURG%20in%20CRC%20template%20April%202013.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Doody, Justine. “The World’s Top Donor.” Global Policy Journal, 1 May 2014, www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/01/05/2014/worlds-top-donor. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Europäisches Jahr der Entwicklung: Luxemburg liegt an der Spitze.” Luxemburger Wort, 3 Jan. 2015, www.wort.lu/de/politik/europaeisches-jahr-der-entwicklung-luxemburg-liegt-an-der-spitze-54a6ce0a0c88b46a8ce4eafa. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“La Coopération luxembourgeoise – Rapport annuel 2015.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, 21 July 2016, www.gouvernement.lu/6185135/21-cooperation-rapport-annuel. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Luxembourg: a generous aid donor.” OECD, www.oecd.org/dac/peer-reviews/peer-review-luxembourg.htm. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Luxleaks und Co. einmal anders: “Spart euch eure Entwicklungshilfe”.” Luxemburger Wort, 15 June 2015, www.wort.lu/de/politik/luxleaks-und-co-einmal-anders-spart-euch-eure-entwicklungshilfe-557dcbbd0c88b46a8ce5b4f7. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

“Organisations non gouvernementales.” Le portal de l’actualité gouvermentale, www.gouvernement.lu/4737059. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

Rapport annuel 2015. La Coopération Luxembourgeoise au Développement, 2016. www.cooperation.lu/2015/fr/651/Évolution-de-l’aide-publique-au-développement-en-2015http://www.cooperation.lu/2015/fr/651/Évolution-de-l’aide-publique-au-développement-en-2015. Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
Back to Top