Turkey

   

Environmental Policies

#40
Key Findings
With relatively underdeveloped conservation regimes, Turkey falls into the bottom ranks internationally (rank 40) with regard to environmental policies. Its score on this measure has declined by 0.5 points relative to 2014.

While improvements have been made with regard to emissions controls, the use of renewable energy, and energy efficiency, the country is still rated poorly in terms of climate performance. It has expressed a need to continue using coal for energy production, undermining official commitments.

Enforcement measures remain weak, especially on the issues of waste management and industrial pollution. Overall, policy changes aimed at strengthening environmental sustainability have been rather superficial.

Environment

#41

How effectively does environmental policy protect and preserve the sustainability of natural resources and quality of the environment?

10
 9

Environmental policy effectively protects, preserves and enhances the sustainability of natural resources and quality of the environment.
 8
 7
 6


Environmental policy largely protects and preserves the sustainability of natural resources and quality of the environment.
 5
 4
 3


Environmental policy insufficiently protects and preserves the sustainability of natural resources and quality of the environment.
 2
 1

Environmental policy has largely failed to protect and preserve the sustainability of natural resources and quality of the environment.
Environmental Policy
3
Sustainable development policies gained in importance in Turkey as part of the EU accession process, which involved the country taking steps forward in environmental policy and legislation. The environmental chapter (Chapter 27) of the EU acquis was opened in 2009. In terms of environmental impact assessments, Turkey is generally in line with EU environmental legislation. In recent years, considerable progress has been made toward establishing emissions controls, the use of renewable energies and promoting energy efficiency. In the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, Turkey was ranked 108 out of 180 countries. According to the 2018 Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), Turkey ranked 47 out of 60 countries.

According to the European Commission (2018), Turkey has some level of preparation in relation to environment and climate change. But enforcement remains weak, especially on waste management and industrial pollution. Over the short run, Turkey should complete its alignment with the directives on water, waste management and industrial pollution, and ensure that the Environment Impact Assessment Directive is correctly implemented. In addition, Turkey should complete its alignment with the acquis on climate change. However, its claim to continue using coal for energy production, and to be ranked again in the group of emerging countries in order not to risk its economic needs and projections, undermines official commitments and renders the country’s efforts ineffective and unsustainable.

Citations:
European Commission (2018) ‘Turkey 2018 Report’, SWD(2018) 153 final, Brussel

German Watch (2018) ‘Climate Change Performance Index: Results 2018,’ Bonn.



Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy and Center for International Earth Science Information Network (Columbia University) ‘2018 Environmental Performance Index’ in Global Metrics for the Environment: Ranking Country Performance on High-Priority Environmental Issues, www.epi.yale.edu.

Global Environmental Protection

#39

To what extent does the government actively contribute to the design and advancement of global environmental protection regimes?

10
 9

The government actively contributes to international efforts to design and advance global environmental protection regimes. In most cases, it demonstrates commitment to existing regimes, fosters their advancement and initiates appropriate reforms.
 8
 7
 6


The government contributes to international efforts to strengthen global environmental protection regimes. It demonstrates commitment to existing regimes and occasionally fosters their advancement or initiates appropriate reforms.
 5
 4
 3


The government demonstrates commitment to existing regimes, but neither fosters their advancement nor initiates appropriate reforms.
 2
 1

The government does not contribute to international efforts to strengthen global environmental protection regimes.
Global Environmental Policy
5
Turkey’s Climate Change Action Plan 2011 – 2023 stresses its adherence to international commitments, standards and measures and foresees increasing cooperation with international actors, especially in the fields of combating climate change and improving energy efficiency, along with an active role in international activities more generally.

Reservations based on national concerns complicated negotiations of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, which entered into force on 4 November 2016 after 55 parties to the convention joined the agreement. The Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning signed the Paris Agreement in New York, and the agreement was ratified by Turkey on 22 April 2016. So far, policy changes that would fulfill the necessary reform requirements and strengthen environmental sustainability in Turkey remain rather superficial.

A special project on Sustainable Development Goals Situation Analysis Project Turkey was launched by Escarus, and the Turkey Industry and Development Bank in early 2017 within the scope of sustainable development goals of U.N. Agenda 2030.

Citations:
Republic of Turkey, Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023, http://www.csb.gov.tr/db/iklim/editordosya/IDEP_ENG.pdf (accessed 5 November 2014)





Ümit Şahin (2016), Warming a Frozen Policy: Challenges to Turkey’s Climate Politics after Paris, Turkish Policy Quarterly, Volume 15 Number 2, pp. 116-129.




Escarus _TSKB Sustainability Consultancy, http://www.escarus.com/en (accessed 27 October 2018).
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