Turkey

   

Executive Capacity

#36
Key Findings
Despite its increasingly powerful central government, Turkey falls into the bottom ranks internationally (rank 36) with regard to executive capacity. Its score on this measure has declined by 1.6 points since 2014.

Following the April 2017 referendum and June 2018 elections, the governmental system was changed to a highly centralized presidential model. There are 16 line ministries and nine policy councils, which address long-term strategy. Four offices produce projects in broad policy areas, which are transformed into policies by the councils. The Prime Minister’s Office has been abolished.

Neither RIAs nor ex post evaluations are used to any substantial degree. Draft policies and laws are not subject to public consultation. The government tends to consult only with pro-government actors. Governmental inefficiency is widespread, especially in relation to the economy.

Ministerial compliance is high, with President Erdoğan in control of the government and governing party. Following the coup attempt in 2016, numerous democratically elected mayors and municipality staff were replaced with pro-government appointees. Regulatory enforcement is oriented toward increasing central power.

Strategic Capacity

#30

How much influence do strategic planning units and bodies have on government decision-making?

10
 9

Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions, and they exercise strong influence on government decision-making.
 8
 7
 6


Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions. Their influence on government decision-making is systematic but limited in issue scope or depth of impact.
 5
 4
 3


Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions. Occasionally, they exert some influence on government decision-making.
 2
 1

In practice, there are no units and bodies taking a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions.
Strategic Planning
5
All public institutions, including municipalities, special provincial administrations (laws 5216, 5302 and 5393) and state-owned economic enterprises (KİTs), but excluding regulatory and supervisory bodies, must prepare strategic plans according to Law 5018 (2003) on Public Financial Management and Control and the By-law on Principles and Procedures for Strategic Planning in Public Administrations (2006).

Ministries have established strategic-planning units, creating the need for inner- and interministerial coordination and cooperation on present and future tasks and problems. In general, the Prime Minister’s Office, the Ministries of Finance, Development and Interior, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, the Turkish Court of Audit, and the Board of Internal Audit are the primary institutions involved in the process of strategic planning. The High Planning Board of the Ministry of Development was reorganized and is now the Presidential Board of Economic Policies, which is in charge of coordinating development plans and annual programs, and determining investment and export incentives. Under the current system of government, the Head of Strategy and Budget is affiliated with the Presidential Office.

Strategic management within the Turkish public administration faces several challenges. Public institutions in general have insufficient strategic-management capacity. Strategic plans, performance programs, budgets and activity reports are prepared with little if any coordination. Although a total of 890 internal auditors are employed across 382 public institutions, the Turkish public administration as a whole has failed to develop an effective internal-audit system. There is no relationship between political strategy documents and lower-level policy materials, and little coordination between associated institutions. Difficulties in gaining access to relevant information within public administrative bodies and insufficient human resource capacities are additional major contributors to this failure. There are also no cumulative statistics on the frequency of meetings between strategic-planning staff members and government heads. In general, these meetings are held once a year and during budget negotiations. However, there is no harmony between strategic plans and governmental decisions.

During the review period, the 2016 – 2019 National e-Government Strategy and Action Plan was prepared. The plan envisages an integrated, technological, participatory, innovative and high-quality Effective e-Government Ecosystem, and takes into account national and international considerations. Following the June 2018 early elections, a new medium-term program and the 2019 Annual Presidential Program was also announced. Under the new governmental system, the coordination of strategic planning will be a major focus.

Citations:
European Commission Turkey Report 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/…/sites/…/20180417-turkey-report.pdf, (accessed 27 October 2018)
TC Kalkınma Bakanlığı, Kamuda Stratejik Yönetim Çalışma Grubu Raporu, Onuncu Kalkınma Planı (2014-2018), 2015. http://www.kalkinma.gov.tr/Lists/zel%20htisas%20Komisyonu%20Raporlar/Attachments/264/Kamuda%20Stratejik%20Y%C3%B6netim%20%C3%87al%C4%B1%C5%9Fma%20Grubu%20Raporu.pdf (accessed 7 November 2016)
Kamu İdarelerince Hazırlanacak Stratejik Planlara Dair Tebliğ, Resmi Gazete, 30 April 2015, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/04/20150430-10.htm (accessed 1 November 2018)
TC Hazine ve Maliye Bakanlığı, Yeni Orta Vadeli Program, Dengeleme- Disiplin- Değişim, 2019-2021, http://www.bumko.gov.tr/Eklenti/11246,yeni-ekonomi-programipdf.pdf?0 (accessed 27 October 2018)
2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Programı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/10/20181027M1-1.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)
Sait Aşgın ve Kemal Yaman, “Türkiye’de Bakanlıkların Stratejik Plan Uygulamalarında Mevcut Yapı ve Sürecin Değerlendirilmesi,” International Journal of Academic Value Studies, 4(19), 2018: 449-466.

Does the government regularly take into account advice from non-governmental experts during decision-making?

10
 9

In almost all cases, the government transparently consults with non-governmental experts in the early stages of government decision-making.
 8
 7
 6


For major political projects, the government transparently consults with non-governmental experts in the early stages of government decision-making.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, the government transparently consults with non-governmental experts in the early stages of government decision-making.
 2
 1

The government does not consult with non-governmental experts, or existing consultations lack transparency entirely and/or are exclusively pro forma.
Expert Advice
4
In former years, the frequency of participation by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and experts in political decision-making processes were increased. In addition to working with pro-government think tanks, the government consults with academic experts in the context of projects sponsored by the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Union.

However, the spectrum of communication with outside experts is narrowing, as the government has begun to recruit its own experts to provide alternative but not critical opinions on relevant issues of public policy. Policymaking is increasingly biased. As Turkish politics has become increasingly polarized, the government and the ruling party have seemed to shut themselves off from broader societal influences, basing decision-making increasingly on information provided by loyal personal or clientelist networks. Several academics who had previously worked with the government were recently dismissed from their university positions due to their associations to Gülenist organizations.

Public institutions’ annual activity reports provide no indication of how often expert opinions have been requested. Selected groups of scholars participate in the preparation of special expert reports related to the national development plans. The Turkish Academy of Sciences has been critical of the lack of scholarly cooperation with public institutions.

The new presidential system, which was fully implemented after the June 2018 elections, includes nine policy councils to provide advice and consultation. The councils consist of experts, NGO representatives and professionals, who provide advice to the president. Their effectiveness remains to be seen.

Citations:
Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi, 2014 Faaliyet Raporu, http://www.tuba.gov.tr/upload/tables/2014-tuba-faaliyet-raporu.pdf (accessed 27 October 2015)
Mevzuat Hazırlama Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik, 19.12.2005, http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/3.5.20059986.pdf (accessed 27 October 2015)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacıet al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
Y. Üstüner and N. Yavuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.

Interministerial Coordination

#32

Does the government office / prime minister’s office (GO / PMO) have the expertise to evaluate ministerial draft bills according to the government’s priorities?

10
 9

The GO / PMO provides regular, independent evaluations of draft bills for the cabinet / prime minister. These assessments are guided exclusively by the government’s priorities.
 8
 7
 6


The GO / PMO evaluates most draft bills according to the government’s priorities.
 5
 4
 3


The GO / PMO can rely on some sectoral policy expertise but does not evaluate draft bills.
 2
 1

The GO / PMO does not have any sectoral policy expertise. Its role is limited to collecting, registering and circulating documents submitted for cabinet meetings.
GO Expertise
5
Following the April 2017 referendum and the June 2018 early elections, the governmental system was changed to a presidential model and the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) was abolished. The organization of the new presidential system was regulated by presidential decree No. 703 in July 2018. In addition to a vice-president, the head of administrative affairs was established. Its main task is to coordinate between public institutions and organizations and examine the congruity of laws adopted by the parliament and draft legislation prepared by government institutions with the constitution, current legislation, presidential decrees and government program.

There is no available and updated data about the number and qualifications of presidential personnel. In 2017, the PMO had a total of 2,168 employees, a quarter of whom were able to provide advice (e.g., were experts or advisers). A Sectoral Monitoring and Assessment Unit was established to provide advice to the PMO in 2011. In May 2015, about 266 career employees from various public institutions were assigned to this unit. Critics argue that these senior civil servants lack sufficient resources, as well as incentives for effective action. Until the “cleansing” activities of the government following the averted coup attempt of 2016, the unit was also alleged to be a “detention camp” for bureaucrats supposedly close to illegal Gülenist organizations. Most of these personnel were employed in the president’s office.

According to presidential Decree No. 1, nine councils (e.g., Local Governing Council, Social Policies Council,
the Health and Food Policies Council) are formed to improve the president’s capacity for public policymaking. The councils will report to the president by taking the views of ministries, civil society and sector representatives and experts, and follow the policies and developments implemented. It will also give opinions to public institutions and organizations in their fields. It is too early to assess their effectiveness.

Citations:
TC Başbakanlık 2016 Yılı Faaliyet Raporu, http://www.basbakanlik.gov.tr/docs/KurumsalHaberler/Basbakanlik_2016_Faaliyet_Ra poru.pdf (accessed 1 November 2017)
TC Başbakanlık 2017 Faaliyet Raporu (özet), https://www.kamusaati.com/gundem/basbakanlik-2017-faaliyet-raporu-personel-h31991.html (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
“76 people appointed to Turkey’s presidential policy councils,” Hürriyet, 9 October 2018, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/76-people-appointed-to-turkeys-presidential-policy-councils-137697 (accessed 1 November 2018)

To what extent do line ministries involve the government office/prime minister’s office in the preparation of policy proposals?

10
 9

There are inter-related capacities for coordination between GO/PMO and line ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The GO/PMO is regularly briefed on new developments affecting the preparation of policy proposals.
 5
 4
 3


Consultation is rather formal and focuses on technical and drafting issues.
 2
 1

Consultation occurs only after proposals are fully drafted as laws.
Line Ministries
7
Following the April 2017 referendum and the June 2018 early elections, the governmental system was changed to a presidential model and the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) was abolished. The organization of the new presidential system was regulated by presidential decree in July 2018.

Currently there are 16 line ministries and nine policy councils, which develop long-term strategic vision and report on the progress of governmental activities. The Ministry of Development, which has been the primary consultative body for preparing policies according to the government’s program, was abolished. In addition, four offices were established: finance, investment, digital transformation and human resources.

Six departments are attached to the presidency: Chief of Staff, Religious Affairs, National Security Council, Defense Industry, State Supervision Council, Communication and Strategy, and Budget Unit. These departments were established to promote efficiency and coordination in the executive.

Until the new governmental system change, policymaking was occasionally tarnished by issues of bureaucratic competition, including among politicians. The former PMO’s inability to foster interministerial cooperation had been a serious institutional shortcoming. A previous reorganization of the PMO and line ministries led to some performance declines. Conflicting announcements regarding policy proposals made by the PMO and line ministries were a sign of weak coordination.

The effectiveness of the system, which is based on centralization and unification in decision-making, should be reviewed in the near future.

Citations:
TC Başbakanlık 2017 Faaliyet Raporu (özet), https://www.kamusaati.com/gundem/basbakanlik-2017-faaliyet-raporu-personel-h3199 1.html (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
KHK 703, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180709M3.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z. Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
2017 Programının Uygulanması, Koordinasyonu ve İzlenmesine İlişkin Karar, Resmi Gazete, 19 October 2017,
http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/10/20161019-13.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

How effectively do ministerial or cabinet committees coordinate cabinet proposals?

10
 9

The vast majority of cabinet proposals are reviewed and coordinated first by committees.
 8
 7
 6


Most cabinet proposals are reviewed and coordinated by committees, in particular proposals of political or strategic importance.
 5
 4
 3


There is little review or coordination of cabinet proposals by committees.
 2
 1

There is no review or coordination of cabinet proposals by committees. Or: There is no ministerial or cabinet committee.
Cabinet Committees
6
Following the April 2017 referendum and the June 2018 early elections, the governmental system was changed to a presidential model and the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) was abolished. The organization of the new presidential system was regulated by presidential decree in July 2018. The Ministry of Development – previously the primary consultative body for the preparation, implementation, coordination and monitoring of the government program – was abolished by decree in July 2018.

Until the PMO was abolished in July 2018, the Better Regulation Group within the PMO ensured coordination among related agencies and institutions, and improved the process of creating regulations. In addition, the government has created committees – such as the anti-terror commission under the Ministry of Interior, which includes officials from the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Justice, as well as other security departments. These are composed of ministers, experts, bureaucrats and representatives of other bureaucratic bodies (such as those on legislation techniques, legislation management and administrative simplification, and regulatory impact analysis) in highly important policy areas or when important or frequently raised issues were under consideration.

Several coordination committees and boards were attached to the presidency, presidential policy councils or other public institutions on 1 August 2018.

The effectiveness of the system, which is based on centralization and unification in decision-making, should be reviewed in the near future.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Genelgesi 2018/3, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/08/20180802-2.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacıet al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

How effectively do ministry officials/civil servants coordinate policy proposals?

10
 9

Most policy proposals are effectively coordinated by ministry officials/civil servants.
 8
 7
 6


Many policy proposals are effectively coordinated by ministry officials/civil servants.
 5
 4
 3


There is some coordination of policy proposals by ministry officials/civil servants.
 2
 1

There is no or hardly any coordination of policy proposals by ministry officials/civil servants.
Ministerial Bureaucracy
5
Undersecretary, deputy undersecretary and central governor cadres were abolished by Decree No. 703 in July 2018, in the wake of the introduction of the presidential system of government.

The new centralized government system consists of offices, councils and ministries formed around the presidency. Under the new system, offices produce projects, councils transform projects into policies and the ministries implement policies. The Department of Administrative Affairs conducts monitoring and the State Supervision Council performs a control function. The new governmental system is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of interministerial coordination, in particular.

The effectiveness of the system, which is based on centralization and unification in decision-making, should be reviewed in the near future.

Until July 2018, there was an increasing tendency to draft and adopt legislation without appropriate consultation. The creation of new ministries and agencies and the resulting fragmentation of responsibilities has complicated ministerial coordination, for example in the areas of budgeting and medium-term economic policymaking. Until their abolishment in July 2018, the oversight bodies under the PMO were responsible not only for coordinating and overseeing legal proposals, but are also tasked with monitoring legislative implementation.

Similar observations have been made by the Ministry of Development, the primary policy-coordination body. Accordingly, a serious problem is inefficient coordination due to institutional ambiguity and conflicts.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

Y. Üstüner and N. Yavuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.
TC Başbakanlık 2016 Yılı Faaliyet Raporu, https://www.basbakanlik.gov.tr/docs/KurumsalHaberler/Basbakanlik_2016_Faaliyet_Raporu.pdf (accessed 1 November 2017)
2015 Programının Uygulanması, Koordinasyonu ve İzlenmesine İlişkin Karar, Resmi Gazete, 17 October 2014,
http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/10/20141017-11-1.pdf (accessed 27 October 2015)

How effectively do informal coordination mechanisms complement formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination?

10
 9

Informal coordination mechanisms generally support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 8
 7
 6


In most cases, informal coordination mechanisms support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, informal coordination mechanisms support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 2
 1

Informal coordination mechanisms tend to undermine rather than complement formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
Informal Coordination
5
Informal bodies, which are usually made up of senior party members and their personal networks, are typically used to sketch the framework of an issue in consultation with experts, while civil servants develop proposals, and finally the upper administrative echelons finalize policy. The higher levels of the ruling party in particular, in cooperation with ministers who have considerable experience in their fields, continue to form a tight network and contribute significantly to policy preparation.

Informal coordination between the PMO and the presidency allegedly became more relevant once President Erdoğan assumed office, and especially once Binali Yildirim became prime minister. Though the PMO has since been abolished following the transition to a presidential system. Erdoğan regularly meets with line ministers and with the “small cabinet” to coordinate government policies. This type of informal coordination, however, cannot be considered constructive, as it has the potential to replace formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.

The new presidential governmental system, introduced after the April 2017 referendum and the June 2018 elections, is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of interministerial coordination.

The effectiveness of the system, which is based on centralization and unification in decision-making, should be reviewed in the near future.

During the review period, President Erdoğan (who is also chairman of the ruling AKP) decided to hold the April 2017 referendum and the June 2018 elections, following an informal agreement with the head of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). As part of the agreement, AKP and MHP campaigned together in the subsequent elections. By doing so, informal politics fundamentally sidelined legitimate forms of decision-making and policymaking, and runs counter to executive politics.

Citations:
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
M. Turan, “Türkiye’nin Yeni Yönetim Düzeni: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Hükümet Sistemi,” Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(3), 2018: 42-91. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/524784 (accessed 1 November 2018)

How extensively and effectively are digital technologies used to support interministerial coordination (in policy development and monitoring)?

10
 9

The government uses digital technologies extensively and effectively to support interministerial coordination.
 8
 7
 6


The government uses digital technologies in most cases and somewhat effectively to support interministerial coordination.
 5
 4
 3


The government uses digital technologies to a lesser degree and with limited effects to support interministerial coordination.
 2
 1

The government makes no substantial use of digital technologies to support interministerial coordination.
Digitalization for Interministerial C.
6
Turkey is a member of the e-Europe+ initiative, while the e-Transformation Turkey Project was introduced by a prime ministerial circular of December 2003. In 2004, e-government applications were introduced into public administration following the adoption of e-signatures. In 2008, a prime ministerial circular stated that the electronic document management standards and Registered Electronic Mail (KEP) projects were being implemented. Turkey developed an Information Society Strategy and Action Plan 2006 – 2010. The subsequent 2015 – 2018 Information Society Strategy and Action Plan focuses on economic growth and employment, and includes 72 actions in eight axes, including horizontal issues.

KAYSİS is an information system that covers the organizational structure of public institutions, public services, documents used by public services and all elements incorporated in public administration. Furthermore, the system integrates all e-government applications to promote a small-state government.

The KAYSİS system includes: DETSİS, a central registry of state organization;
HEYS, a system in which public services (provided to citizens, businesses, non-governmental organizations or other public institutions) are determined at the operational level, and defined in the electronic environment by Service Inventory Number and national process maps;
Public Legislation System (KMS), a system in which all legislation is registered and made publicly available; Service Standards Management System (HSYS), a system which monitors the standardization of services provided by public institutions; State Document Management System (DBYS), a system in which the names of requested documents are standardized by the State Document Number and samples are recorded electronically; Standard File Plan Management (SDYPS), a system which defines the subject of an article and the retention times of archive codes; Public Satisfaction Survey (KMA), a smart survey system which reports citizens’ satisfaction ratings for public services for use in determining strategies for public administration.

MERSİS is one of the most important projects of the e-transformation process in Turkey. The project has four basic databases: the Central Population Administration System (MERNİS), National Address Database (UAVT), Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBİS), and Central Registry System. Additional e-government applications include POLNET (police network and information system) and UYAP (national judiciary informatics system).

The e-government portal in Turkey is estimated to be used by about 30 million people. No recent analysis of the use of e-government applications by ministries is available.

Citations:
TC Ulaştırma ve Altyapı Bakanlığı, 2015–2018 Bilgi Toplumu Stratejisi ve Eylem Planı, http://www.edevlet.gov.tr/2015/10/13/2015-2018-bilgi-toplumu-stratejisi-ve-eylem-plani/ (accessed 1 November 2018)
E. Tamtürk, “Kamu Yönetiminde Elektronik Belge Yönetim Sistemi,” Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(3), 2017: 851-862. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/325152 (1 November 2018)
E. Sezgin et al., “The Perception of Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMS) as a Transformational Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Public Institutions in Turkey,” Y. K. Dwivedi et al. (eds), Public Administration Reformation Market Demand from Public Organizations, Routledge, 2014, 279-300.
K. Abacı, “Electronic Document Management System in the Turkısh Public Sector and Recommendations,” The Russian Academic Journal, 31(1), 2015: 23-26.
Y. Üstüner and N. YAvuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.

Evidence-based Instruments

#37

To what extent does the government assess the potential impacts of existing and prepared legal acts (regulatory impact assessments, RIA)?

10
 9

RIA are applied to all new regulations and to existing regulations which are characterized by complex impact paths. RIA methodology is guided by common minimum standards.
 8
 7
 6


RIA are applied systematically to most new regulations. RIA methodology is guided by common minimum standards.
 5
 4
 3


RIA are applied in some cases. There is no common RIA methodology guaranteeing common minimum standards.
 2
 1

RIA are not applied or do not exist.
RIA Application
4
Legislation and policy formulation do not follow an inclusive and evidence-based policy development process. The legal requirement to produce medium-term cost estimates and fiscal impact assessments for draft policies and laws continues to be ignored. Regulatory impact assessments are a formal exercise, but are neither sent to parliament nor published.

In 2007, the Prime Minister’s Office issued a circular that provided guidance on how to prepare regulatory impact assessments (RIA). Since that time, the completion of a RIA has been required for all new legislation (laws, decrees and other regulatory procedures), excluding issues relating to national security, the draft budget or final accounts (under Article 24 of Regulation 4821 on the Procedure and Principles of Preparing Legislation, 12 December 2005). However, despite regulations adopted to encourage administrative simplification in April 2012, the introduction of RIAs has not improved the quality of government legislation, and RIA processes are only rarely followed. According to the Regulation on the Procedures and Principles of Legislation (2006), a full RIA is required for legislation that would involve costs of exceeding TRY 30 million (about €5 million) and a partial RIA is required for legislation that would involve costs below this amount.

During the review period, several chambers of industry conducted EU-funded RIA projects. The EU Regulation on the Export and Import of Harmful Chemicals Technical Support Project for Implementation was conducted by several Turkish chambers of industry, including Balıkesir, Kayseri and Kocaeli. The European Union also funded the Technical Assistance for Capacity-Building and Support to the Preparation of a Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for Decoupled Agricultural Support project.

Citations:
European Commission Turkey Report 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/…/sites/…/20180417-turkey-report.pdf, (accessed 27 October 2018)
Mevzuat Hazırlama Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik, http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=3.5.20059986&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=, (accessed 27 October 2018)
Murat Önder, “Mevzuat Yapımında Düzenleyici Etki Analizi ve Uygulama Sorunları,” Türk İdare Dergisi, 89 (485) 2017: 771-810.
Sibel Güven, Türkiye’de Düzenleyici Etki Analizi (DEA) Uygulamaları Nedenİstenen Düzeyde Değil? TEPAV, Ankara, Ocak 2011.
Technical Assistance Service for IPPC – Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Turkey, Draft Regulatory Impact Assessment, 2015, https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/pops/editordosya/SIA%20Report%20-%20Final%20EN.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018).
Zararlı Kimyasalların İhracatı ve İthalatına İlişkin AB Tüzüğü’nün Uygulanması için Teknik Destek Projesi, http://kosano.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ankt.pdf (accessed 1 November 2017)

Does the RIA process ensure participation, transparency and quality evaluation?

10
 9

RIA analyses consistently involve stakeholders by means of consultation or collaboration, results are transparently communicated to the public and assessments are effectively evaluated by an independent body on a regular basis.
 8
 7
 6


The RIA process displays deficiencies with regard to one of the three objectives.
 5
 4
 3


The RIA process displays deficiencies with regard to two of the three objectives.
 2
 1

RIA analyses do not exist or the RIA process fails to achieve any of the three objectives of process quality.
Quality of RIA Process
2
During the period under review, the regulatory impact assessment (RIAs) requirement did not help improve the quality of proposed government legislation. Instead, the government more often than not drafted and adopted legislation without the appropriate consultation of NGOs or other stakeholders; not to mention the government’s de facto surpassing of the parliament under its state of emergency powers.
According to the Regulation on the Procedures and Principles of Legislation (2006), a full RIA is required for legislation that would have result in costs exceeding TRY 30 million (about €5 million) and a partial RIA is required for legislation that would result in costs lower than this amount.

Citations:
Mevzuat Hazırlama Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik, http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=3.5.20059986&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch= (accessed 27 October 2018)
Murat Önder, “Mevzuat Yapımında Düzenleyici Etki Analizi ve Uygulama Sorunları,” Türk İdare Dergisi, 89 (485) 2017: 771-810.
Sibel Güven, Türkiye’de Düzenleyici Etki Analizi (DEA) Uygulamaları Nedenİstenen Düzeyde Değil? TEPAV, Ankara, Ocak 2011.
Technical Assistance Service for IPPC – Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Turkey, Draft Regulatory Impact Assessment, June 2013, http://www.csb.gov.tr/db/ippceng/webmenu/webmenu9986.pdf (accessed 5 November 2014).
Zararlı Kimyasalların İhracatı ve İthalatına İlişkin AB Tüzüğü’nün Uygulanması için Teknik Destek Projesi, http://kosano.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ankt.pdf (accessed 1 November 2017)

Does the government conduct effective sustainability checks within the framework of RIA?

10
 9

Sustainability checks are an integral part of every RIA; they draw on an exhaustive set of indicators (including social, economic, and environmental aspects of sustainability) and track impacts from the short- to long-term.
 8
 7
 6


Sustainability checks lack one of the three criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Sustainability checks lack two of the three criteria.
 2
 1

Sustainability checks do not exist or lack all three criteria.
Sustainability Check
3
The government has conducted several sustainability checks within its regulatory impact assessment (RIA) framework, for instance for the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive, the Habitat Directive and the Discharge Directive.

Within the scope of U.N. Sustainable Development Goals 2030, a project to assess the current state of sustainability in Turkey was launched. However, the project has since been postponed indefinitely.

However, these examples refer to internationally sponsored projects and are not an indication of a general administrative practice. Politicians and experts widely use the term “sustainability” in policy slogans, but there is no formally adopted sustainability strategy in Turkey.

During the review period, the Coordination Board of Internal Audit published Performance Audit Guidelines for Public Sector Internal Auditors, which includes sustainability checks as a component in performance auditing. However, there is no information about RIA sustainability checks.

Citations:
Başbakanlık, Bürokrasinin Azaltılması ve Kamu Hizmet Sunum Esaslarının Geliştirilmesi, Düzenleyici Etki Analizi Raporu, Temmuz 2009, www.pirigroup.com/RIA/doc/Burokrasinin_azaltilmasi.doc (accessed 1 November 2018)
Yavuz Gazibey, Ahmet Keser, Yunus Gökmen, Türkiye’de İllerin Sürdürülebilirlik Boyutları Açısından Değerlendirilmesi, Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 2014, 69(3): 511-544. (accessed 1 November 2018)
İç Denetim Koordinasyon Kurulu, Kamu iç Denetçileri İçin Performans Denetimi Rehberi, 2016, http://www.idkk.gov.tr/SiteDokumanlari/Mevzuat/Ucuncul%20Duzey%20Mevzuat/PerformansDenetimiRehberi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

To what extent do government ministries regularly evaluate the effectiveness and/or efficiency of public policies and use results of evaluations for the revision of existing policies or development of new policies?

10
 9

Ex post evaluations are carried out for all significant policies and are generally used for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
 8
 7
 6


Ex post evaluations are carried out for most significant policies and are used for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
 5
 4
 3


Ex post evaluations are rarely carried out for significant policies and are rarely used for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
 2
 1

Ex post evaluations are generally not carried out and do not play any relevant role for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
Quality of Ex Post Evaluation
2
Currently, the capacity of public policy assessment institutions in Turkey lack knowledge regarding evidence-based instruments, both theoretically and practically. RIA practice was introduced by Law No. 5018 on Public Financial Management and Control (2003), and other relevant regulations. In this context, a cost-benefit analysis is required for all public agencies. However, there are various social and political barriers to the evaluation of public policies. For example, the parliament and judiciary cannot effectively supervise and review executive actions. It is unlikely that an effective evaluation mechanism will be developed in the near future. However, there are a few academic studies that have evaluated certain public policies.

Citations:
Aydın Usta, “Yeni Kamu Yönetiminde Politikaların Değerlendirilmesi: Tipolojiler, Boyutlar ve Ölçütler, ” Sayıştay Dergiṡi̇, 94/Temmuz-Eylül 2014, 5-27.
İbrahim Arap and Veysel Erat, “Bir Kamu Politikasının Analizi: Türkiye’de Geçici Köy Koruculuğu,” Mülkiye Dergisi, 39 (4), 2015: 73-108.

Societal Consultation

#37

Does the government consult with societal actors in a fair and pluralistic manner?

10
 9

The government always consults with societal actors in a fair and pluralistic manner.
 8
 7
 6


The government in most cases consults with societal actors in a fair and pluralistic manner.
 5
 4
 3


The government does consult with societal actors, but mostly in an unfair and clientelistic manner.
 2
 1

The government rarely consults with any societal actors.
Public Consultation
3
According to the Regulation Concerning the Procedures and Principles of Preparation of Legislation (Article 6), ministries may announce draft texts that are of public concern via the internet, press or printed publication before forwarding it to the Prime Minister’s Office. However, decision-makers (the executive) are not required to consult with civil society organizations, although decision-makers may choose to (Article 7/2 and 3). Consequently, government decisions are made after the draft text has been publicly debated. In developing policies on housing, energy and education, among other policy areas, ministries may convene consultative bodies of major stakeholders, although not all sectors or organizations are typically included. The 64th and 65th government programs included some strategic goals for public-civil society dialogue. However, these goals were limited to the development of civil society and cooperation in cultural affairs. Circumstances since 2015 have prevented the inclusion civil society in participatory mechanisms.

Turkey’s national development plans emphasize the importance of cooperation between NGOs and the public sector. The EU-funded public-civil society dialogue projects promote the participation of civil society in public decision-making. The relationship between government and society, and parliament and society are not based on a systematic and structured consultation mechanism. Due to increasing political polarization during the review period, the government has increased restrictions on public access to policymaking processes and tended to consult only with pro-government actors.

Some civil society organizations (e.g., TÜSİAD) established the delegation on the Relations with the Parliament and Public Institutions, and organized several meetings with the governmental representatives.

In general, governmental authorities consider this requirement to have a “slowing” effect on policymaking (e.g., on progressive projects such as urban renewal or the planning of hydroelectric power plants). Draft policies and laws are not subject to public consultation, despite legal requirements.

Citations:
European Commission Turkey Report 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/…/sites/…/20180417-turkey-report.pdf, (accessed 27 October 2018)
64th Government Program, http://www.akparti.org.tr/upload/documents/64.hukumet_programi.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)
65th Government Program, https://www.akparti.org.tr/site/haberler/65.-hukumet-programi/84149 (accessed 27 October 2018)
Türkiye’de Hidroelektrik Sektöründe Paydaş Analizi, Istanbul: WWF-Türkiye, 2015, http://awsassets.wwftr.panda.org/downloads/wwf_paydas_analizi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018).
Civil Society Dialogue, Political Criteria Projects, http://civilsocietydialogue.org/masonry-grid/ (accessed 27 October 2015).
Yakup Bulut et al., “Kamu Politikalarının Oluşturulmasında Sivil Toplum Kuruluşlarının Etkisi,” Strategic
Public Management Journal, 3(6), 2017: 23-38.
Gökçeçiçek Ayata and Ulaş Karan, Sivil Topluma Aktif Katılım: Uluslararası Standartlar, Ulusal Mevzuattaki Engeller, Öneriler, Istanbul: TÜSEV, 2015.
“Kamu - Sivil Toplum İşbirliği,” https://www.avrupa.info.tr/tr/kamu-sivil-toplum-isbirligi-37 (accessed 1 November 2017)
TÜSİAD, 2017 Çalışma Raporu, https://tusiad.org/tr/faaliyet-raporlari/item/download/8866_437 acba2ff81e038a8074a20a1bc09a2 (accessed 27 October 2018)

Policy Communication

#32

To what extent does the government achieve coherent communication?

10
 9

Ministries are highly successful in aligning their communication with government strategy.
 8
 7
 6


Ministries most of the time are highly successful in aligning their communication with government strategy.
 5
 4
 3


Ministries occasionally issue public statements that contradict the public communication of other ministries or the government strategy.
 2
 1

Strategic communication planning does not exist; individual ministry statements regularly contradict each other. Messages are often not factually consistent with the government’s strategy.
Coherent Communication
4
Policy coordination among central government institutions has traditionally been strong, but annual planning, monitoring and reporting of whole-of-government performance continue to be lacking. In spite of its centralized and hierarchical structure, Turkey’s executive is poorly coordinated and rarely speaks with a single voice. Contradictory policy statements on the economy (role of the central bank), security (failure in security and safety provisions) or education (reform of the examination processes) are regular.

In addition, under state of emergency powers, the voice of the president is considered decisive. Yet, a coordinated “division of labor” has not been achieved. Following the April 2017 constitutional referendum, the government initiated a project to prevent confusion over overlapping ministerial authority, reduce the “bureaucratic oligarchy” and improve the effectiveness of administrative processes.

The government spokesman system did not work effectively due to the fact that the president, the prime minister (until July 2018) and individual ministers made contradictory public addresses – either contradicting each other or the government program.

The new presidential system metaphorically consists of a satellite system: a sun located at the center and two administrative satellites, five offices, nine councils, 16 ministries and several departments. The new government announced a 100-day performance program and is in the process of preparing an additional 100-day performance program to be announced in November 2018. The opposition leader criticized that the government for failing to deliver on most of its policy promises.

Citations:
European Commission Turkey Report 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/…/sites/…/20180417-turkey-report.pdf, (accessed 27 October 2018)
“Yetki karmaşaları mercek altında,” Hürriyet, 3 September 2017, http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yetki-karmasalari-mercek-altinda-40568608 (accessed 1 November 2018)
“Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan’dan TEOG ve LYS açıklaması,” Yeni Şafak, 27 September 2017, http://www.yenisafak.com/gundem/cumhurbaskani-Erdoğandan-teog-ve-lys-aciklamasi-2796903 (accessed 1 November 2017)
“Başbakan Yıldırım’dan TEOG açıklaması,” 3 October 2017, https://www.ntv.com.tr/turkiye/basbakan-yildirimdan-teog-aciklamasi,gexFodLrykKgWvTypnFNow (accessed 1 November 2017)
“Milli Eğitim Bakanı Yılmaz, TEOG yerine gelecek yeni istemi açıkladı,” 5 November 2017, http://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/milli-egitim-bakani-yilmaz-teog-yerine-gelecek-yeni-istemi-acikladi-340141.html (accessed 5 November 2017)
Z.Sobacı et al., Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective, July 2017, https://setav.org/en/assets/uploads/2018/07/45_Perspective.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)
100 Günlük İcraat Programı 3 Ağustos 2018, https://www.aa.com.tr/uploads/userFiles/c09e217d-a61f-47f8-a355-ddf8004cfef9/100_GUNLUK_ICRAAT_PROGRAMI.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)
“Kılıçdaroğlu’ndan Erdoğan’a ‘icraat programı’ sorusu: 100 gün doldu, ne oldu?” https://www.demokrathaber.org/siyaset/kilicdaroglu-ndan-Erdoğan-a-icraat-programi-h109731.html (accessed 13 November 2018)

Implementation

#31

To what extent can the government achieve its own policy objectives?

10
 9

The government can largely implement its own policy objectives.
 8
 7
 6


The government is partly successful in implementing its policy objectives or can implement some of its policy objectives.
 5
 4
 3


The government partly fails to implement its objectives or fails to implement several policy objectives.
 2
 1

The government largely fails to implement its policy objectives.
Government Effectiveness
6
Governmental inefficiency is widespread, especially in relation to the economy. The first nine months following the implementation of the government’s annual economic objectives varied sharply from official budget and 2017 – 2019 medium-term fiscal plan forecasts. The recent devaluation of the Turkish lira has increased the fiscal burden on macroeconomic variables. In the current and the next (2018 – 2020) medium-term fiscal plan, greater fiscal discipline is expected. Unemployment, inflation and the budget deficit will continue to be major economic weaknesses, which will be exacerbated by population growth, refugee issues and security concerns. Results were similarly mixed in other sectors. For instance, the Ministry of Education realized most of its 43 performance objectives, while the Ministry of Health completed most of its 22 objectives for 2016. However, the Ministry of Health failed to realize two key objectives, namely human resource objectives in the health care sector and scientific publications.

Citations:
“İşte hükümetin bütçe performansı,” 17 October 2017, http://www.businessht.com.tr/ekonomi/haber/1311270-iste-hukumetin-butce-performansi (accessed 1 November 2018)
“Turkey challenges EU to ‘open new chapters,’” Hürriyet Daily News, 10 May 2017, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-challenges-eu-to-open-new-chapters-112952 (accessed 1 November 2018)
“Bütçe açığı ve örtülü harcamalar coştu,” 16 November 2017, Sözcü, http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2017/ekonomi/butce-acigi-ve-ortulu-harcamalar-costu-2092299/ (accessed 1 November 2018)
Ministry of Development, 2017-2019 Medium Term Programme in Macro-economic and Fiscal Targets, http://www.mod.gov.tr/Pages/content.aspx?List=16bb86d7%2Dad48%2D4f23%2Db1e3%2D56bbe5b28aaa&ID=13&Source=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Emod%2Egov%2Etr%2FPages%2FMediumTermPrograms%2Easpx&ContentTypeId=0x0100F7A44FBA3ED2844D8825963D0C0BE391 (accessed 1 November 2018)
Sağlık Bakanlığı 2014 Faaliyet Raporu, https://dosyasb.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/7585,raporpdf.pdf?0 (accessed 1 November 2018)
Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, 2016 Faaliyet Raporu, https://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2017_02/28172815_2016_FR_webde_yayYmlanacak_kitap.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
Pelin Ünker, “Ekonomide tüm hedefler şaştı,” Cumhuriyet daily newspaper, 10 September 2015. (accessed 27 October 2015)

To what extent does the organization of government provide mechanisms to ensure that ministers implement the government’s program?

10
 9

The organization of government successfully provides strong mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 8
 7
 6


The organization of government provides some mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 5
 4
 3


The organization of government provides weak mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 2
 1

The organization of government does not provide any mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
Ministerial Compliance
7
The entrenched single-party government, with strong party leadership and high demand for ministerial positions among party members, provides strong incentives for the promotion of the government program. Therefore, it is difficult even for those ministers who are professionals in their fields to come independently to the forefront. The charisma and standing of the party leader and the tendency of political parties to leave personnel decisions to the party leader prevent ministers from pursuing their own interests during their time in office.

The AKP governments under Erdoğan have made it even more difficult for ministers to follow their own agendas, a situation which has continued under Erdoğan’s successors since 2014. President Erdoğan continues to maintain his grip on the government, stressing his intention to be an active president, and interfering in almost every policy field and ministerial portfolio. Following the constitutional referendum of April 2017, Erdoğan was immediately re-elected chair of the AKP, legalizing a previously de facto status. This contradicts the principle that Turkey’s head of state should be impartial and should not be a member of a political party. Second, Erdoğan immediately started to exercise constitutional powers that were intended to take effect after the 2019 presidential elections. Early presidential and parliamentary elections were held on 24 June 2018, the results of which strengthened Erdoğan’s full authority as the president of Turkey and chair of the ruling party.

Erdoğan has also actively intervened in the nomination of deputies, the appointment of senior civil servants and the organization of electoral campaigns. In other words, the office of the president, now entrusted with increasing powers, has replaced the offices otherwise established by the constitution. Thus, the current constellation raises the question whether the effectiveness of the executive in general and the government in particular will be diminished by the existence of several centers of power, and suggests that the democratic separation of powers as a whole are eroding.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

TC Başbakanlık 2017 Faaliyet Raporu (özet), https://www.kamusaati.com/gundem/basbakanlik-2017-faaliyet-raporu-personel-h3199 1.html (accessed 1 November 2018)
Z.Sobacıet al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
“Constitutional amendments in Turkey: Predictions and implications,” 28 February 2017, http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/positionpapers/2017/02/constitutional-amendments-turkey-predictions-implications-170228092500529.html (accessed 1 November 2017)

How effectively does the government office/prime minister’s office monitor line ministry activities with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The GO / PMO effectively monitors the implementation activities of all line ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The GO / PMO monitors the implementation activities of most line ministries.
 5
 4
 3


The GO / PMO monitors the implementation activities of some line ministries.
 2
 1

The GO / PMO does not monitor the implementation activities of line ministries.
Monitoring Ministries
7
The General Directorate of Laws and Decrees, and the General Directorate of Legislation Development and Publication under the former Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) examined the congruity between draft bills, decrees, regulations and resolutions of the Council of Ministers, and the constitution, as well as reviewed general laws, plans and the government’s program. These bodies were the primary government centers for the drafting and coordinating of regulations.

However, there is no systematic monitoring of the activities of line ministries. In some cases, the ministerial bureaucracy resists policy handed down by the government without serious consequences, particularly in issues of democratization. In general, however, ministries work in cooperation with the prime minister’s office because the single-party government has staffed leading ministerial posts with bureaucrats who operate in sync with the ruling party’s program and ideology.

Until July 2018, the PMO had a total of 2,253 employees, a quarter of whom were experts or advisers. A Sectoral Monitoring and Assessment Unit was established in 2011 to provide advice to the PMO. A total of 17 full-time officers were employed by the PMO. Beginning in May 2015, about 266 career employees from various public institutions were also assigned to this unit.

The new government, established with the implementation of the presidential system in June 2018, consists of offices, councils and ministries formed around the presidency. Under the new system, offices produce projects, councils transform projects into policies and the ministries implement policies. The Department of Administrative Affairs conducts monitoring and the State Supervision Council performs a control function. The new governmental system is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of interministerial coordination.

The effectiveness of the system, which is based on centralization and unification in decision-making, should be reviewed in the near future.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
TC Başbakanlık 2017 Faaliyet Raporu (özet), https://www.kamusaati.com/gundem/basbakanlik-2017-faaliyet-raporu-personel-h3199 1.html (accessed 1 November 2018)
Z.Sobacıet al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

How effectively do federal and subnational ministries monitor the activities of bureaucracies/executive agencies with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The ministries effectively monitor the implementation activities of all bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 8
 7
 6


The ministries monitor the implementation activities of most bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 5
 4
 3


The ministries monitor the implementation activities of some bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 2
 1

The ministries do not monitor the implementation activities of bureaucracies/executive agencies.
Monitoring Agencies|Bureaucracies
7
Turkey is a unitary state divided into 81 provinces (Article 126 of the constitution). Power is devolved in such a way as to ensure the efficiency and coordination of public services from the center. Ministerial agencies are monitored regularly. The central administration by law holds the power to guide the activities of local administration, to ensure that local services are delivered in conformance with the guidelines set down by the central government, as well as ensuring services are uniform, meeting local needs and in the interest of the local population (Article 127). The central government has provincial organizations that differ in size and capacity and are regularly scrutinized by the central government. Independent administrative authorities such as the Telecommunications Authority and Energy Market Regulatory Authority are not monitored, but are subject to judicial review.

Law 5018, adopted in 2004, introduced a strategic-management approach under which all public agencies must prepare a strategic plan, annual program and activity reports. The performance of subunits is assessed on the basis of these documents. However, neither strategic management principles nor internal oversight mechanisms have been effectively implemented.

The Internal Audit Coordination Board, affiliated with the Ministry of Finance, was established under Article 66 of the Public Financial Management and Control Law (Law 5018). The board ensures that administrative bodies cooperate with public auditing bodies, and recommends measures to eliminate fraud and other irregularities. According to the 2016 Annual Activity Report, qualified human resources management, capacity-building, coordination, and the separation of inspection and internal-audit functions are major issues in this field.

All public agencies maintain an internal audit body. However, such bodies do not function effectively or operate to their fullest.

The new presidential government consists of offices, councils and ministries formed around the presidency. Under the new system, offices produce projects, councils transform projects into policies and ministries implement policies. The Department of Administrative Affairs conducts monitoring and the State Supervision Council performs a control function. The new governmental system is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of inter-ministerial coordination.

The effectiveness of the system, which is based on centralization and unification in decision-making, should be reviewed in the near future.

Citations:
İç Denetim Koordinasyon Kurulu 2016 Yılı Kamu İç Denetim Genel Raporu, November 2016, http://www.idkk.gov.tr/SiteDokumanlari/Faaliyet%20Raporlar%c4%b1/2017KamuicDenetimGenelRaporu.pdf
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf

TC Başbakanlık 2017 Faaliyet Raporu (özet), https://www.kamusaati.com/gundem/basbakanlik-2017-faaliyet-raporu-personel-h3199 1.html (accessed 1 November 2018)
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

To what extent does the central government ensure that tasks delegated to subnational self-governments are adequately funded?

10
 9

The central government enables subnational self-governments to fulfill all their delegated tasks by funding these tasks sufficiently and/or by providing adequate revenue-raising powers.
 8
 7
 6


The central government enables subnational governments to fulfill most of their delegated tasks by funding these tasks sufficiently and/or by providing adequate revenue-raising powers.
 5
 4
 3


The central government sometimes and deliberately shifts unfunded mandates to subnational governments.
 2
 1

The central government often and deliberately shifts unfunded mandates to subnational self-governments.
Task Funding
6
Municipal governments depend on financial contributions from the central government. Many municipalities do not have the sufficient resources to finance basic duties. Thus, many have declared bankruptcy. Municipal borrowing constitutes a large share of Turkey’s total medium- and long-term debt. Financial decentralization and reform of local administration have been major issues during the review period. The central administration (mainly through the Bank of Provinces) is still the major funding source for local governments through regional development projects (e.g., GAP, DAP and DOKAP). Besides transfers from the central government budgets within the scope of village infrastructure project (KÖYDES), the Drinking Water and Sewer Infrastructure Program (SUKAP) and the Social Support Program (SODES) still continue.

The previous governments have been frequently accused of taking a partisan approach toward the distribution of funds. Since 2009, transfers from the central government to municipalities via the Bank of Provinces have taken into consideration the number of inhabitants and the locality’s relative position on development indices. However, the new model has not eased the difficult financial situation of Turkey’s municipalities, which are seriously indebted to central-government institutions. According to Audit Court reports, most metropolitan municipalities have substantial debts. Therefore, most local projects in major metropolitan municipalities are run by the central government.

The recent change in regulations governing metropolitan municipalities was designed to generate funds for municipal governments. While existing competencies will continue in general, it may be necessary to expand local government powers, diversify local needs, broaden service requirements, and promote public interest to ensure effective and efficient services. However, the new presidential system, which is based on the centralization and unification of decision-making, leaves no space for decentralization.

Citations:
2017 Yılı Kamu Yatırımlarının Sektörlere Göre Dağılımı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/01/20170114M1-1-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
2018 Yılı Yatırım Programı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/01/20180115M1-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
M. Esen, “Güncel Resmi Raporlar Göre Belediyelerimizin 2017 Yılı Faaliyetlerinin Değerlendirilmesi,”
(accessed 27 October 2015)
“Yerel yönetimler borç batağında,” https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2018/ekonomi/yerel-yonetimler-borc-bataginda-2666700/ (accessed 1 November 2018)
“Yerel yönetimlere yeni yılda 114,3 milyar lira kaynak,” 28 October 2018, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/ekonomi/yerel-yonetimlere-yeni-yilda-1143-milyar-lira-kaynak-391377.html (accessed 1 November 2018)

To what extent does central government ensure that subnational self-governments may use their constitutional scope of discretion with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The central government enables subnational self-governments to make full use of their constitutional scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 8
 7
 6


Central government policies inadvertently limit the subnational self-governments’ scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 5
 4
 3


The central government formally respects the constitutional autonomy of subnational self-governments, but de facto narrows their scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 2
 1

The central government deliberately precludes subnational self-governments from making use of their constitutionally provided implementation autonomy.
Constitutional Discretion
2
According to Article 127, Paragraph 1 of the constitution, local administrative bodies are public entities established to meet the common needs of the local inhabitants of provinces, municipal districts and villages, whose decision-making bodies are determined by the electorate as described in law, and whose structure is also determined by law. However, according to Article 127, Paragraph 5 of the constitution, the central administration has the power of administrative trusteeship over local governments, under a framework of legal principles and procedures designed to ensure the functioning of local services in conformity with the principle of administrative unity and integrity, to secure uniform public services, to safeguard the public interest and to meet local needs in an appropriate manner.

Shortly after the June 2015 parliamentary elections, two towns and 15 provinces in the southeast of Turkey and two neighborhoods in Istanbul declared self-government. The central government took a strong stand against these declarations, and judicial investigations were initiated against mayors and other people in charge. Moreover, in the wake of the averted coup attempt in 2016 and the government’s state of emergency, numerous democratically elected mayors and municipality staff were detained and replaced with pro-government appointees by the central government.

While existing competencies will continue in general, it may be necessary to expand local government powers, diversify local needs, broaden service requirements, and promote public interest to ensure effective and efficient services. However, the new presidential system, which is based on the centralization and unification of decision-making, leaves no space for decentralization.

Citations:
Ayşe Güner and Serdar Yılmaz, Son Değişikliklerin Türkiye’de Yerel Yönetimlerin Takdir Hakkı ve Hesap Verilebilirlik Üzerindeki Etkisi, Marmara İktisat Dergisi, 1,2 Eylül 2017, 229-250.
Z. Sobacı, Türkiye’nin Avrupa Yerel Yönetimler Özerklik Şartı’na Uyumu: Özerklik Miti, 2015, http://setav.org/tr/turkiyenin-avrupa-yerel-yonetimler-ozerklik-sartina-uyumu-ozerklik-miti/analiz/18570 (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
“Yerel yönetimlere düzenleme: İller ‘Bütünşehir’ sayılacak, belediye başkanlarının yetkisi artacak,” https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/201807181034332985-yerel-yonetimler-butunsehir-belediye-baskanlari-yetki/ (accessed 1 November 2018)
“Öz yönetim ilan edilen merkez sayısı 16’ya yükseldi,” T24, 20 August 2015, https://t24.com.tr/haber/oz-yonetim-ilan-edilen-merkez-sayisi-16ya-yukseldi,306949 (accessed 1 November 2018)

To what extent does central government ensure that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services?

10
 9

Central government effectively ensures that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
 8
 7
 6


Central government largely ensures that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
 5
 4
 3


Central government ensures that subnational self-governments realize national minimum standards of public services.
 2
 1

Central government does not ensure that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
National Standards
5
The Ministry of Interior Affairs closely monitors the structure and quality of services provided by municipal governments, through its own local agencies and administrative trusteeship (through internal and external audits, and audits by civil service inspectors). The Union of Municipalities of Turkey also offers nationally or EU-funded training and technical support for municipalities in this respect.

While United Nations Development Program (UNDP) support for the implementation of local-administration reform in Turkey (LAR Phase 2) has been concluded, Turkey still aims to fulfill some requirements of the European Local Self-Government Charter. In this context, municipalities work to establish departments tasked with monitoring, investment and coordination. The main duties of these departments are to provide, monitor and coordinate public institutions and organizations’ investments and services; to provide and coordinate central-administration investments in the provinces; and to guide and inspect provincial public institutions and organizations. However, the most significant outstanding issues with regard to standardizing local public services are essentially financial, technical and personnel-driven. Within the OECD, Turkey remains the country with the largest regional disparities.

Citations:
Kamu Hizmetlerinin Sunumunda Uyulacak Usul ve Esaslara İlişkin Yönetmelik, Official Gazette, 31 July 2009, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/main.aspx?home=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2009/07/20090731.htm&main=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2009/07/20090731.htm (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

To what extent is government enforcing regulations in an effective and unbiased way, also against vested interests?

10
 9

Government agencies enforce regulations effectively and without bias.
 8
 7
 6


Government agencies, for the most part, enforce regulations effectively and without bias.
 5
 4
 3


Government agencies enforce regulations, but ineffectively and with bias.
 2
 1

Government agencies enforce regulations ineffectively, inconsistently and with bias.
Regulatory Enforcement
4
A state of emergency was declared by the government after the averted coup attempt of 2016, which lasted until shortly after the June 2018 elections. Under the state of emergency, the government used all its capacities and competences to impose its rule over many areas of public policymaking (e.g., security, justice, economy, media and civil society) by tightening its control over human resources and legal practices, as well as by restricting human and civil rights. According to the World Justice Project’s Rule of Law Index 2017, Turkey ranked 88 out of 113 countries, with a score of 0.44 for regulatory enforcement.

In other words, during the review period, the AKP and the president followed a biased and polarizing strategy in government, which undermined sustainable, democratic public policymaking.

Citations:
World Justice Project, Rule of Law Index 2017-2018, https://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/documents/WJP-ROLI-2018-June -Online-Edition_0.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

Adaptability

#40

To what extent does the government respond to international and supranational developments by adapting domestic government structures?

10
 9

The government has appropriately and effectively adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 8
 7
 6


In many cases, the government has adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, the government has adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 2
 1

The government has not adapted domestic government structures, no matter how beneficial adaptation might be.
Domestic Adaptability
3
Since the June 2018 early elections, the Turkish governmental system is transitioning toward a presidential model. This transition is largely based one state of emergence decree, one Council of Ministers decree and two presidential decrees. The ongoing restructuring will take time. Consequently, it is too soon to evaluate the adaptive capacity of the government and consequences of the restructuring.

Turkey faced a currency crisis just before and after the elections, as the government had to comply with global currency market conditions. However, the government refused to consult with the IMF to counter the currency crisis effectively.

Turkey is a signatory of several international conventions that include binding provisions and the Turkish government has attempted to comply with these international responsibilities. However, the government has fallen short on many requirements, either legally or institutionally. The European Commission 2017 Report highlighted several topics requiring urgent improvement. For example, a climate change adaptation strategy is yet to be adopted and enforced. Turkey has still not adapted legislation related to the COE Istanbul Convention on preventing and combating violence against women. Turkey needs to take further steps to adapt and enforce rules on animal welfare and animal by-products

The report also stated that Turkey needs to achieve further alignment with the EU acquis public administration reform, and demonstrate a strong commitment to a more open administration and the use of e-government in several public services, including public procurement, environment and climate change, statistics and transport. Turkey’s judicial system is at an early stage of preparation. There has been further serious backsliding in the past year, in particular with regard to the independence of the judiciary. The constitutional amendments governing the CJP (HSK) entered into force during the review period, which further undermined judicial independence from the executive. Shortcomings in the corruption-related provisions of the Criminal Code need to be harmonized with the standards of the COE Criminal Law Convention on Corruption.

Citations:
European Commission Turkey Report 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/…/sites/…/20180417-turkey-report.pdf, (accessed 27 October 2018)
Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe, “The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey” 8 March 2017, http://website-pace.net/documents/19887/3258251/20170308-TurkeyInstitutions-EN.pdf/bbd65de5-86d4-466f-9bc1-185d5218bce7 (accessed 1 November 2018)
Bakanlar Kurulu yeniden yapılandırılıyor, Hürriyet, 8 June 2011, http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/17982957.asp (accessed 5 November 2014)
Seriye Sezen, International versus Domestic Explanations of Administrative Reforms, Andrew Massey (eds.) Public Sector Reform, Vol. II, Sage Publications, 2013.
Yaşar Aydin, Erdoğan steht vor der Wegscheide, http://www.b-republik.de/aktuelle-ausgabe/Erdoğan-steht-vor-der-wegscheide (accessed 21 December 2016)

To what extent is the government able to collaborate effectively with international efforts to foster global public goods?

10
 9

The government can take a leading role in shaping and implementing collective efforts to provide global public goods. It is able to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress.
 8
 7
 6


The government is largely able to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. Existing processes enabling the government to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress are, for the most part, effective.
 5
 4
 3


The government is partially able to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. Processes designed to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress show deficiencies.
 2
 1

The government does not have sufficient institutional capacities to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. It does not have effective processes to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress.
International Coordination
5
As a result of the ongoing civil war in Syria, Turkey has hosted and assisted more than 3.5 million Syrian refugees, with only a limited proportion of refugees living in state-run refugee camps. The EU-Turkey Statement has become an important element of the European Union’s comprehensive approach on migration. While Turkey accuses the European Union of falling behind on its promises, the European Union claims that €3 billion were allocated through the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey in 2016 and 2017.

The U.S.-led coalition campaign to destroy the Islamic State group enters its fourth year, with authorities declaring concrete improvements. However, Turkey, a key player in the coalition, has also intensified its own separate efforts in Syria. The Turkish military established its own mission in Northern Syria in 2016 and 2017. This mission has since developed into a full military confrontation with the U.S.-backed People’s Protection Units (YPG). Turkey claimed the mission is part of Turkey’s efforts to fight all terrorist organizations, including ISIL. In December 2016, a total of 3,359 people were taken into custody for associating with ISIL militants and 1,313 were arrested. Since November 2017, police officers have conducted almost daily raids on ISIL cells across Turkey, with increasing intensity in the past few weeks.

In addition to the consultative, coordinative and cooperative structures within NATO and the European Union, Turkey also participated in the Vienna and Geneva talks as well as – after overcoming disputes with Russia – bilateral talks with Russia, Iran and other regional players in search of a diplomatic solution to the Syrian conflict. Within the scope of bilateral and multilateral agreements, Turkish troops are active in Afghanistan, Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Syria and Iraq.

In 2017, in accordance with the Concept of Participation in the Operations of Support and Protection of Peace, Turkey carried out 20 projects in Afghanistan, 24 projects in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 41 projects in Kosovo, and a total of 85 civilian military cooperation projects.

Citations:
European Commission Turkey Report 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/…/sites/…/20180417-turkey-report.pdf, (accessed 27 October 2018)
International Crisis Group, “Turkey’s Syrian Refugees: Defusing Metropolitan Tensions,” https://www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/western-europemediterranean/turkey/248-turkeys-syrian-refugees-defusing-metropolitan-tensions (accessed 1 November 2018) TC Milli Savunma Bakanlığı Faaliyet Raporu 2017, http://www.msb.gov.tr/Content/Upload/Docs/maliye/MSB%202017%20Faaliyet%20Raporu.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)
TİKA Annual Report 2017, https://www.tika.gov.tr/upload/2018/2017%20Faaliyet%20Raporu/AR_2017%20web.pdf
(accessed 27 October 2018)

Organizational Reform

#27

To what extent do actors within the government monitor whether institutional arrangements of governing are appropriate?

10
 9

The institutional arrangements of governing are monitored regularly and effectively.
 8
 7
 6


The institutional arrangements of governing are monitored regularly.
 5
 4
 3


The institutional arrangements of governing are selectively and sporadically monitored.
 2
 1

There is no monitoring.
Self-monitoring
5
With the April 2017 referendum and the subsequent incremental introduction of the presidential system of government, Turkey has undergone an organizational change involving the creation of new institutions, the merging or splitting of ministerial bodies, legal changes and rapid personnel shifts. These developments make monitoring exceedingly difficult.

The organization of the new presidential system was regulated by presidential Decree No. 703 in July 2018. In addition to a vice-president, the head of administrative affairs was established under the General Directorate of Law and Legislation. Its main task as the head of administrative affairs is to coordinate between public institutions and organizations, and examine the congruity of laws adopted by the parliament and draft legislation prepared by government institutions with the constitution, current legislation, presidential decrees and government program. The policy councils of the president are expected to monitor and report the implementation of governmental policies to the president.

Several units contribute to the monitoring process directly or indirectly. These units include the State Supervisory Council, the Directorate General of Law and Legislation of the Presidency of the Republic, the Directorate General of Laws and Decrees of the TBMM, the General Directorate of Laws of the Ministry of Justice, and the Council of State. Each administrative institution has its own internal control unit for monitoring compliance with financial rules. However, these units are not fully effective.

Citations:
“132 maddelik anayasa uyum paketi Başbakanlık’ta,” http://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/132-maddelik-anayasa-uyum-paketi-basbakanlikta-318675.html (accessed 1 November 2017)
TC Başbakanlık 2017 Faaliyet Raporu (özet), https://www.kamusaati.com/gundem/basbakanlik-2017-faaliyet-raporu-personel-h3199 1.html (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
Y. Üstüner and N. Yavuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.

To what extent does the government improve its strategic capacity by changing the institutional arrangements of governing?

10
 9

The government improves its strategic capacity considerably by changing its institutional arrangements.
 8
 7
 6


The government improves its strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
 5
 4
 3


The government does not improve its strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
 2
 1

The government loses strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
Institutional Reform
5
According to Law 5018 on Public Financial Management and Control, all public institutions, including municipalities and special provincial administrations, must prepare strategic plans. All public bodies have designated a separate department for developing strategy and coordination efforts; however, these departments are not yet completely functional. Maximizing strategic capacity requires resources, expert knowledge, an adequate budget and a participatory approach. The government lacks sufficient personnel to meet the requirements of strategic planning, performance-based programs and activity reports. In this respect, several training and internship programs have been established.

Turkey developed sectoral strategies and action plans for 2015 – 2018 on biotechnology, entrepreneurship, small and medium scale enterprises, productivity and information society. Several strategy documents were also prepared such as a National Employment Strategy. Also, a National Strategy of Regional Development was prepared for the period 2014 – 2023. The central government’s institutions and agencies, local administrations, universities, and the state economic enterprises (KİTs) also prepared strategic plans.

Advocates of the presidential system, introduced since the April 2017 referendum, argue that it will bring greater efficiency and effectiveness to policymaking. However, the state of emergency decrees and practices, and the urgent need to harmonize current legislation with recent constitutional amendments undermines strategic thinking and improvements in public administration.

Turkey is moderately prepared in the field of public administration reform. However, there has been serious backsliding in the areas of public service and human resource management Turkey made a progress on e-government. The European Commission’s recommendations from 2016 onward have not been implemented. There is still no comprehensive public administration reform strategy or political ownership of this reform. Inclusive public consultations and systematic regulatory impact assessments for major legal reforms have either not been carried out or have not been publicized. The politicization of public administration and the low level of female representation in the higher echelons of bureaucracy continue to be of serious concern.

Citations:
Kalkınma Bakanlığı, Kamuda Stratejik Yönetim Çalışma Grubu Raporu, Ankara, 2013.
Neşe Songör, “Türk Kamu Yönetiminde Stratejik Planlama ve Uygulamalara İlişkin Genel Bir Değerlendirme” Strategic Public Management Journal (SPMJ), Issue No: 1, October 2015, 56-78.
Stratejik Yönetimde Kapasite Geliştirme Teknik Destek Projesi Revize Edilmiş Taslak Boşluk Değerlendirme Raporu, http://www.sp.gov.tr/tr/html/54/Stratejik+Yonetimde+Kapasite+Gelistirme+Projesi, (accessed 1 November 2018)

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2014-15, ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2014/20141008-strategy-paper_en.pdf (accessed 27 October 2015)
“Kamu yönetimi sil baştan: Cumhurbaşkanlığına bağlı tarım, çevre ve ekonomi ofisleri kurulacak,” 31 October 2017, http://www.diken.com.tr/kamu-yonetimi-sil-bastan-cumhurbaskanligina-bagli-tarim-cevre-ve-ekonomi-ofisleri-kurulacak/ (accessed 1 November 2017)
Y. Üstüner and N. Yavuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.
Back to Top