Portugal

   

Social Policies

#23
Key Findings
With the Costa government focusing on revitalizing social systems, Portugal falls into the lower-middle ranks (rank 23) in the area of social policies. Its score on this measure represents a gain of 0.6 points relative to its 2014 level.

Education levels are low and unequal by international comparison. However, decades-long polices have helped substantially increase the share of young people completing secondary school. A failure to recruit new teachers is presenting looming problems. Welfare spending has returned to pre-austerity levels. About 17.3% of the population is at risk of poverty after social transfers.

The healthcare system generally performs well, but financial constraints have led to a reduction in the quality and inclusiveness of services. Child-support credits have been expanded. The birth rate has risen, but not to pre-crisis levels. Women’s workforce participation is often forced by generally low wages and household income needs rather than free choice.

Pension values have again been increased. The retirement age is now indexed to life expectancy. The system may experience financial imbalances over the medium and long term. Integration policy is strong, with a welcoming framework for migrants. The naturalization process has been made easier, and the volume of requests for Portuguese nationality has risen substantially.

Education

#29

To what extent does education policy deliver high-quality, equitable and efficient education and training?

10
 9

Education policy fully achieves the criteria.
 8
 7
 6


Education policy largely achieves the criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Education policy partially achieves the criteria.
 2
 1

Education policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Education Policy
6
Education policy is a field in which results only come to fruition long after their implementation. In the case of Portugal, we can see a steady improvement in educational attainment since the beginning of the new millennium. At the same time, these improvements have been insufficient to reverse a historic pattern of low overall and unequal levels of educational attainment.

In terms of the three criteria under analysis, we can point to inequality in the quality of education obtained and generally low levels of efficiency. Though these have been improving, the unstable policy framework has meant that these improvements are arguably taking place at a slower rate than would otherwise be possible.

In terms of educational attainment, Portugal continues to present low and unequal levels of educational attainment. The country remains firmly anchored at the bottom of the OECD in terms of the proportion of the population having completed upper secondary education. Less than 25% of the population aged between 25 and 64 had attained this level in 2018, although this was 0.9 percentage point improvement vis-à-vis 2017. While Portugal fares comparatively better in terms of tertiary education (25% in 2018, a one percentage point improvement vis-à-vis 2017), it is still 12 percentage points below the OECD average.

At the same time, earlier policies are now paying off. In 2009, the country extended compulsory education until the end of secondary school (12th grade). Almost a decade later, the proportion of 18 to 24-year-olds leaving school without completing secondary school dropped from 30.9% in 2009 to 12.6% in 2017 to 11.8% in 2018. Equally, the proportion of the population aged over 15 that has completed secondary school increased from 14.5% to 21.1% in 2017 to 21.9% in 2018, a 7.4 percentage point increase (whereas from 2001 to 2009, this increase was 2.8 percentage points). PISA assessment results for Portugal also show a steady improvement over time, with Portugal emerging as one of the most improved countries since the first round in 2000.

These improvements are also observable in higher education. In the 2006 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Portugal was the only EU-15 country not to have at least one institution in the top 500 (excluding Luxembourg, which has a limited higher education structure). Since 2017, Portugal has had at least four universities in the top 500. The four universities ranked in the top 500 in 2019 – and an additional two ranked between 501 and 700 – puts Portugal ahead of Ireland in this regard.

However, there remains room for improvement, on at least four grounds.

First, there is significant variation in the quality of education between schools. The average school score in the 2018 national exams ranged from 12.77 (out of 20) for the highest rated public school to 7.88 in the lowest rated public school. The variance is even greater when we consider private schools also, with the best performing school presenting an average of 15.32 – almost twice the average for the lowest rated school. Additionally, anecdotal evidence suggests that the quality of education is often unequal within schools.

Second, these differences reflect policy failures, including the lack of effective accountability mechanisms and incentives, weak lifelong training and inefficient management systems.

Third, considerable instability in the sector – with substantial changes from year to year – means that the educational system is unpredictable, and that the impact of changes is limited. The previous SGI report noted how the adoption of a new system for special needs education in July 2018, decree-law 54/2018, reflected this instability. The legislation appears to have resulted in shortages in the provision of necessary support, at least in the short run. This pattern of not allowing sufficient time for policies to consolidate was again evidenced in the period under review, with decree-law 54/2018 being revised by parliament to Law 116/2019, which introduced further changes to the system for special needs education. Needless to say, the constant changes pose a significant challenge for schools and teachers in terms of implementation.

Finally, the failure to recruit new teachers, not least as a result of austerity-driven public sector hiring freezes, should be noted. Portugal now has one of the oldest teaching populations in the OECD. In 2007, there were 102 teachers aged 50 or over per every 100 teachers aged under 35, across all levels from primary to secondary. In 2018, there were a staggering 1,358 teachers aged 50 or over for every 100 teachers aged under 35.

Citations:
Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019, available online at: http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2019.html

Expresso (2019), “Ranking 2018 das Escolas,” available online at: https://expresso.pt/ranking-das-escolas-2018

OECD (2019), Adult education level (indicator). doi: 10.1787/36bce3fe-en.

OECD (2019), “Education at a Glance 2019 – Portugal,” DOI:https://doi.org/10.1787/a3d2189a-en

Pordata (2019), “População residente com 15 e mais anos por nível de escolaridade completo mais elevado (%),” available online at: https://www.pordata.pt/Portugal/População+residente+com+15+e+mais+anos+por+n%C3%ADvel+de+escolaridade+completo+mais+elevado+(percentagem)-884

Pordata (2019), “Taxa de abandono precoce de educação e formação: total e por sexo,” available online at: https://www.pordata.pt/Portugal/Taxa+de+abandono+precoce+de+educação+e+formação+total+e+por+sexo-433

Pordata (2019), “Índice de envelhecimento dos docentes em exercício nos ensinos pré-escolar, básico e secundário: por nível de ensino – Continente,” available online at: https://www.pordata.pt/Portugal/%c3%8dndice+de+envelhecimento+dos+docentes+em+exerc%c3%adcio++nos+ensinos+pr%c3%a9+escolar++b%c3%a1sico+e+secund%c3%a1rio+por+n%c3%advel+de+ensino+++Continente-944-7743


Público (2018), “Pressa na mudança de regime deixa muitos alunos com necessidades especiais sem apoios,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2018/09/29/sociedade/noticia/mudanca-de-regime-deixa-muitos-alunos-sem-apoios-1845677

Público (2019), “Ministério recebeu 50 queixas sobre apoios a alunos com necessidades especiais,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/03/08/sociedade/noticia/ministerio-50-queixas-apoios-alunos-necessidades-especiais-1864542

Público (2019), “Fenprof diz que há alunos com necessidades especiais que perderam apoios,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/03/16/sociedade/noticia/fenprof-ha-alunos-necessidades-especiais-perderam-apoios-1865656

Social Inclusion

#28

To what extent does social policy prevent exclusion and decoupling from society?

10
 9

Policies very effectively enable societal inclusion and ensure equal opportunities.
 8
 7
 6


For the most part, policies enable societal inclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 5
 4
 3


For the most part, policies fail to prevent societal exclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 2
 1

Policies exacerbate unequal opportunities and exclusion from society.
Social Inclusion Policy
5
Government social policies seeking to limit socioeconomic disparities do exist and have been partially successful in preventing poverty.

The 2011 – 2014 bailout led to the adoption of austerity measures that sought to reduce public expenditure on social inclusion and contributions to poverty-reduction programs. This led to an increase in the share of those at risk of poverty after social transfers, from 17.9% in 2010 to 19.5% in 2014 and 2015.

The Costa government stated its intention to turn the page on austerity, without relinquishing its approach to budgetary consolidation.

As such, there has been a gradual reversal in austerity measures imposed on pension and welfare payments. While in the previous SGI report, the situation had not yet returned to pre-bailout levels, in 2018 it did. The share of the population at risk of poverty after social transfers fell to 17.3% in 2018, one percentage point below the level for 2017. This is the lowest level since 1995 (covering the period for which Eurostat has data), and it is very close to the estimated EU and euro area averages of 16.9%. Even so, according to data from the National Statistical Institute, 2,223,000 people in Portugal, 21.6% of the population, were at risk of poverty and/or social exclusion in 2018. The data goes into much greater detail, but the general point is that poverty and social exclusion are serious problems in Portugal. It should also be noted that 20% of Portuguese workers earn the minimum monthly salary of €600, while the mean monthly salary is €943. The government recognizes the importance of this challenge. Its policies for combating social exclusion are grouped under the Programa Operacional Inclusão Social e Emprego (see official url in the citations).
While Portugal still has a long way to go in terms of eliminating the risk of social exclusion, the results for 2018 are very encouraging, not least as they have been achieved while ensuring fiscal responsibility.

Citations:
Eurostat, “People at risk of poverty after social transfers,” available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=t2020_52&language=en


https://poise.portugal2020.pt/inicio

Health

#31

To what extent do health care policies provide high-quality, inclusive and cost-efficient health care?

10
 9

Health care policy achieves the criteria fully.
 8
 7
 6


Health care policy achieves the criteria largely.
 5
 4
 3


Health care policy achieves the criteria partly.
 2
 1

Health care policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Health Policy
5
Portugal performs comparatively well across a number of health policy indicators, including life expectancy and infant mortality, with results that significantly outperform the level of public expenditure.

At the same time, the focus of the healthcare system is largely reactive and concentrated on “big ticket” statistics (e.g., life expectancy and infant mortality). The healthcare system pays relatively little attention to women’s concerns during childbirth. Likewise, the number of healthy years a person can expect to live after 65 years of age is well below the EU average, particularly for women, even though average life expectancy exceeds the EU average. The most recent Eurostat data indicates that Portugal has the seventh lowest number of healthy years after 65 years old for women and 11th lowest for men in the European Union in 2017.

As in other public policy areas, the country’s national health system came under financial pressure in the previous review period because of the pressure on Portugal to curb public expenditure. Likewise, while the Costa government seeks to end austerity, it also aims to sustain budgetary consolidation, with the healthcare sector affected by de facto restrictions on expenditure.

These financial constraints have led to reductions in a number of services and even forced some hospitals to stop providing certain services. For instance, the Garcia da Orta hospital in Almada was forced to close the pediatrics emergency service, while the obstetrics emergency service in Beja was temporarily closed on five occasions due to a lack of doctors between the beginning of the review period and mid-June 2019. Overall, it appears that the cumulative effects of restrictions over the last several years is now negatively affecting the quality and inclusiveness of healthcare services. In addition, as the Public Health Service (SNS) is a disaster, a large number of doctors and nurses are leaving Portugal for other countries. A situation that will only get worse.

Healthcare professionals, including doctors, have held several strikes over disputes regarding pay and working conditions. As is the case with education, these strikes concern the amount of resources made available by the government for healthcare.

There are substantial political obstacles to achieving agreement on healthcare policy (and on how to fund it).

Citations:
Diário da Região Setubalense (2019), “Crise nas urgências deixa saúde da região em quarentena,” available online at: https://www.diariodaregiao.pt/ultimas/2019/10/15/crise-nas-urgencias-deixa-saude-da-regiao-em-quarentena/

Eurostat (2019), “Healthy life years and life expectancy at age 65 by sex,” available online at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/tepsr_sp320/default/bar?lang=en

Público (2019), “Médicos marcam dois dias de greve, em 2 e 3 de Julho,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/06/03/sociedade/noticia/medicos-marcam-marcam-greve-3-julho-1875204

Observador (2019), “Urgência de Ginecologia/Obstetrícia de Beja fecha pela 5.ª vez este ano por falta de médico,” available online at: https://observador.pt/2019/06/14/urgencia-de-ginecologia-obstetricia-de-beja-fecha-pela-5-a-vez-este-ano-por-falta-de-medico/

RTP (2019), “Administração do Hospital Garcia de Orta reuniu com chefes de equipas de urgências,” available online
at: https://www.rtp.pt/noticias/pais/administracao-do-hospital-garcia-de-orta-reuniu-com-chefes-de-equipas-de-urgencias_v1177659

https://observador.pt/…/medicos-e-enfermeiros-realizam-segundo-dia-de-paralisacoes/
visao.sapo.pt/…/2019-01-23-O-que-esta-em-causa-na-nova-Lei-de-Bases-da-Saude-e…

https://observador.pt/…/ps-rompe-com-psd-na-negociacao-da-lei-de-bases-da-saude/

Families

#15

To what extent do family support policies enable women to combine parenting with participation in the labor market?

10
 9

Family support policies effectively enable women to combine parenting with employment.
 8
 7
 6


Family support policies provide some support for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 5
 4
 3


Family support policies provide only few opportunities for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 2
 1

Family support policies force most women to opt for either parenting or employment.
Family Policy
7
The birth rate has improved in recent years, increasing from 7.9 per 1,000 persons in 2013 and 2014 to 8.5 births per 1,000 persons in 2018. However, these changes appear to be driven more by improving economic conditions than by changes to family policy. The birth rate remains well below the pre-bailout rate of 9.6 births per 1,000 persons in 2010. Moreover, the current birth rate falls well short of mitigating Portugal’s looming demographic crisis, with the low birth rate aggravated by a high emigration rate. The United Nation’s median projection forecasts that Portugal’s population will decline from 10.2 million in 2010 to 9.1 million in 2050.

Policy changes during the period under review have reinforced several of the measures mentioned in the previous SGI report. For example, textbooks were made freely available to all children in public schools between grades one and 12, while in 2018/19 textbooks were only freely available to children between grades one and six. Similarly, the amount and coverage of child-support credit (“abono de família”) was further increased in the 2019 budget.

However, these measures still fall well short of providing a legal and substantial support framework that would enable women to freely decide whether and when they want to enter full- or part-time employment. In a country with low wages, female participation in the workforce – which is one of the highest in the OECD – reflects the income needs of households as much as it does the actual choices of women and families.

Citations:
Eurostat, “Live births and crude birth rate” Available online at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tps00204&language=en

UN, “World Population Prospects 2019 Data Booklet,” available online at: https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2019_DataBooklet.pdf

Pensions

#26

To what extent does pension policy realize goals of poverty prevention, intergenerational equity and fiscal sustainability?

10
 9

Pension policy achieves the objectives fully.
 8
 7
 6


Pension policy achieves the objectives largely.
 5
 4
 3


Pension policy achieves the objectives partly.
 2
 1

Pension policy does not achieve the objectives at all.
Pension Policy
6
One of the key elements in the Socialist Party’s agreement with the PCP and BE involved ending the austerity approach to pension policy.

In 2019, pension values were again increased. This included an extra increase in pensions and an extra pension supplement for low-income pensioners.

The official retirement age is linked to life expectancy. In 2019, it was increased to 66 years and five months, from 66 years and four months in 2018.

Despite this adjustment factor, the system faces medium- and long-term financial imbalances. Expenditure on pensions is high and has risen since the turn of the new millennium. Between 2000 and 2013, expenditure on pensions increased by over 50%, from 10% to 15.7% of GDP. This is the third largest increase in the European Union, exceeded only by Cyprus and Greece. Since 2013, it has fallen, standing at 14.6% in 2016, the most recent year for which data is available. However, that is still the fourth highest level in the European Union, only lower than Greece, Italy and France. This contrasts with 2000, when it was only the 14th highest in the European Union.

A recent study of the pension system, which looked ahead to 2070, forecasts an increase in the absolute number of pensioners from 26.3% of the population in 2020 to 35.9% in 2050. While this is not expected to raise the weight of pensions as a share of GDP, the study does forecast that, if the social security system remains unchanged, it will run deficits between 2027 and 2070, peaking at a deficit of 2.8% of GDP in 2050.

Citations:
Montepio (2019), “Pensões em 2019: Quem vai ter aumento?,” available online at: https://www.montepio.org/ei/ultimas/gestao-diaria-ultimas/pensoes-em-2019-quem-vai-ter-aumento/

Moreira, A. (2019), “Sustentabilidade do sistema de pensões português,” available online at: https://www.ffms.pt/FileDownload/62281dcc-1734-403d-846e-c5b38bc8fa7e/resumo-do-estudo-sustentabilidade-do-sistema-de-pensoes-portugues

Pordata (2019), “Pensões: despesa total em % do PIB,” available online at: https://www.pordata.pt/Europa/Pens%C3%B5es+despesa+total+em+percentagem+do+PIB-1579

Integration

#8

How effectively do policies support the integration of migrants into society?

10
 9

Cultural, education and social policies effectively support the integration of migrants into society.
 8
 7
 6


Cultural, education and social policies seek to integrate migrants into society, but have failed to do so effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Cultural, education and social policies do not focus on integrating migrants into society.
 2
 1

Cultural, education and social policies segregate migrant communities from the majority society.
Integration Policy
9
The bailout was accompanied by a decline in immigration. Though since 2016 the resident foreign population has increased at an accelerating rate. After a 2% increase in the immigrant population in 2016, it increased 6% in 2017 and 15% in 2018, the year for which the most recent data is available. By all accounts, this increase is set to continue at pace in 2019.

In previous SGI reports, we noted that Portugal has a welcoming policy framework for migrants. The country ranked second in the European Union in the 2015 Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) in terms of most favorable migrant-integration policies. While the MIPEX has not been updated, existing evidence suggests that this continues to be the case. Thus, as detailed in the previous SGI report, the most recent OSCE Good Practices in Migrant Integration: Trainee’s Manual highlights a number of good practices in Portugal.

In April 2018, parliament approved several amendments to the naturalization laws. Overall, these changes – which are detailed in the previous SGI report – make naturalization easier.

This change in the legislation has seen a rise in the number of requests for Portuguese nationality, which increased by some 50% between 2016 and 2018, from 117,629 to 176,285.

Portugal has sought to be a leader at the EU level with regard to refugees and migrants, advocating a liberal position. It has consistently shown a willingness to take in refugees and a government statement in June 2019 indicated that Portugal had received the sixth highest number of refugees as part of the EU resettlement program.

Citations:
Governo de Portugal (2019), “Dia Mundial do Refugiado – nota à comunicação social,” available online at: https://www.portugal.gov.pt/download-ficheiros/ficheiro.aspx?v=cab46a1a-1bc1-4d5a-8d82-d0ffe8eee919

Lei Orgânica nº 2/2018 [Law no. 2/2018], available online at: https://dre.pt/home/-/dre/115643970/details/maximized

Migrant Integration Policy Index, “Key Findings – Portugal 2015,” available online at: http://www.mipex.eu/portugal

OSCE (2018), Good Practices in Migrant Integration: Trainee’s Manual, available online at: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/?action=media.download&uuid=17D9FD33-0B7B-A37B-0CD6F2869D688741

Pordata (2019), “População estrangeira com estatuto legal de residente: total e por algumas nacionalidades,” available online at: https://www.pordata.pt/Portugal/Popula%C3%A7%C3%A3o+estrangeira+com+estatuto+legal+de+residente+total+e+por+algumas+nacionalidades-24

Público (2019), “Pedidos de nacionalidade portuguesa aumentaram 50% em dois anos,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/03/18/sociedade/noticia/pedidos-nacionalidade-aumentaram-50-dois-anos-1865551

Safe Living

#10

How effectively does internal security policy protect citizens against security risks?

10
 9

Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks very effectively.
 8
 7
 6


Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks more or less effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Internal security policy does not effectively protect citizens against security risks.
 2
 1

Internal security policy exacerbates the security risks.
Internal Security Policy
8
Portugal is signatory to and participant in all relevant Europe-wide programs regarding public security. In addition, Portugal has created a General Secretariat for the Internal Security System, which reports to the prime minister via the minister for internal administration.

Overall, reported crime fell 2.6% in 2018 relative to 2017, and violent crime declined by 8.6% over this period.

In this generally positive picture, a black spot is the increase in deaths of women as a result of domestic violence. There were 39 domestic violence deaths in 2018; and 29 in 2019 by early October.

Portugal remains a relatively safe country in international terms. Furthermore, Portugal has not experienced a terrorist attack of the kind witnessed in many other European countries. Whether this is due to effective intelligence gathering and policing or the priorities and preferences of potential terrorists is unclear.

In a previous SGI report, we noted the failure of civil-protection services during the 2017 forest fires, which resulted in over 100 deaths and over 500,000 hectares of burned land. While Portugal again faced substantial forest fires in 2019, their impact was considerably more limited, with virtually no reported deaths and the total area burned by the end of August being the second lowest since 2009. These improvements are due to a more active policy framework with regard to forest fire prevention, with the government embarking on a number of forest fire prevention initiatives (e.g., strengthening the requirement for landowners to clear shrubbery that could otherwise fuel fires), as well as more favorable weather conditions than in 2017.

In a previous SGI report, we also drew attention to the robbery and subsequent recovery of a large quantity of arms and ammunition, including grenades, from the military arsenal at Tancos. Over this period, charges were brought against a number of military and the national gendarmerie (GNR) officials, and the then-minister of defense over an alleged cover-up regarding the robbery and recovery of the weapons. This has inevitably impacted on the credibility of the military.

As noted in paragraph four above, whether the relatively good internal security situation is due to government policy or the lack of interest by terrorists and organized crime in Portugal, the security situation for Portugal is extremely positive relative to other countries in South and Central Europe.

Citations:
Pordata (2018), “Incêndios rurais e área ardida – Continente,” available online at: https://www.pordata.pt/Portugal/Incêndios+rurais+e+área+ardida+–+Continente-1192

Público (2019), “Portugal com menos 8719 hectares de área ardida do que em 2018,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/09/02/sociedade/noticia/portugal-menos-8719-hectares-area-ardida-2018-1885282

Público (2019), “Quem são os 23 acusados do caso de Tancos?,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/09/26/sociedade/noticia/sao-23-acusados-caso-tancos-1887988

Público (2019), “Duas mulheres mortas em 24 horas. São já 29 as mortes por violência doméstica este ano,” available online at: https://www.publico.pt/2019/10/03/sociedade/noticia/duas-mulheres-mortas-24-horas-sao-ja-29-vitimas-violencia-domestica-ano-1888751

Sistema de Segurança Interna,“Relatório Anual de Segurança Interna 2018,” available online at: https://www.portugal.gov.pt/download-ficheiros/ficheiro.aspx?v=ad5cfe37-0d52-412e-83fb-7f098448dba7

Global Inequalities

#29

To what extent does the government demonstrate an active and coherent commitment to promoting equal socioeconomic opportunities in low- and middle-income countries?

10
 9

The government actively and coherently engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in low- and middle-income countries. It frequently demonstrates initiative and responsibility, and acts as an agenda-setter.
 8
 7
 6


The government actively engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in low- and middle-income countries. However, some of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 5
 4
 3


The government shows limited engagement in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in low- and middle-income countries. Many of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 2
 1

The government does not contribute (and often undermines) efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in low- and middle-income countries.
Global Social Policy
5
There has been virtually no change in this area vis-à-vis previous review periods. Foreign aid remains very much a secondary consideration in foreign policy, with the main interest being in economic diplomacy promoting the Portuguese economy and its exports. That does not mean that Portugal is disengaged – it still participates through the provision of foreign aid, especially in the Portuguese-speaking countries of Africa and East Timor. However, while there is some funding for foreign-aid projects, there is little concern with overarching aid policy, which means that coherence has not been as strong as it might be. This lack of interest has also percolated through to the design of international policies and the lack of international leadership in that regard. It must also be kept in mind that Portugal is a follower, not an international leader, and has very few resources. Therefore, while Portugal is supportive of good intentions, it is in fact marginal with regard to the implementation and design of foreign assistance.

However, if the question were to be shifted to include foreign involvement beyond the financial and economic sphere, then Portugal is a “supplier of security” through its fairly limited participation in U.N., NATO, and EU security- and humanitarian-support missions. Furthermore, in specific instances such as Guinea-Bissau, Portugal is relatively very active in attempting to stabilize national governments, promote security and ultimately promote development.
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