Chile

   

Social Policies

#35
Key Findings
Rocked by mass popular demonstrations against unequal social conditions, Chile receives comparatively low rankings (rank 35) in the area of social policies. Its score in this area has improved by 0.2 points relative to 2014.

Widespread popular protests beginning in October 2019 prompted the government to propose a number of new reforms, including increases in basic pensions, a health-insurance expansion and the creation of municipal funds for vulnerable communities. The proposals failed to stop the protests, and many observers were calling for a more substantial overhaul of the basic economic and social model.

Educational reforms in recent years have led to subsidies for vulnerable students, funding increases and tuition-free status for most university students. The general income distribution is highly unequal. An influx of Venezuelan refugees has radically swollen the migrant population. Special visas for this group are available, but immigration rules have otherwise been tightened by executive degree.

Healthcare is split between private and public systems. The public system provides broad coverage, with varying – though improving – quality. Abortion laws have been loosened, but remain restrictive. Provision of preschool education is improving, but often fails to correspond to parents’ working hours, with wealthier families normally paying private nannies.

Education

#34

To what extent does education policy deliver high-quality, equitable and efficient education and training?

10
 9

Education policy fully achieves the criteria.
 8
 7
 6


Education policy largely achieves the criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Education policy partially achieves the criteria.
 2
 1

Education policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Education Policy
5
Chile’s school and education attainment levels are very mixed and generally much lower than the OECD average. Pre-primary education coverage is still low, but rising. Primary and secondary education coverage is high, reaching nearly 100% of current age cohorts. Tertiary-education coverage is moderate but increasing; however, the quality of universities and private sector technical institutions varies significantly. Former governments were not able to reduce the qualitative and social gap between the private and public systems; this failure has led to strong public protests that have endured since 2010, with peaks in 2011 and 2012.

Traditionally, high-quality education in Chile has been accessible only to those able to afford it. There is a huge quality gap deriving in part from a significant financial divergence between the private- and public-education systems, with per month spending per public-system pupil averaging CLP 40,000 (approximately $60), and private-schooling fees averaging about CLP 300,000 (approximately $450). Chile used to have a broad public-education system, but as a result of the poor quality of the public schools, the share of students attending public institutions has declined to approximately 40%. In general, Chile’s education system – with the exception of a few top universities – fails in the task of enabling students to acquire the knowledge and skills required for the country to make a quantum leap in economic development and growth. This hampers labor-productivity growth and undermines efforts to diminish poverty rates.

There is a basic ideological disagreement between the government and opposition regarding the respective roles of the free market and the state in the education system. Moreover, a strong teachers lobby has made it more difficult to pass reforms. In addition, there have been conflicts between teachers’ boards and the corporations or enterprises offering private-education services. The latest significant changes to the education system were introduced in March 2016 by the enactment of Law No. 20,845 (Ley de Inclusión Escolar), which increased subsidies for the most vulnerable students in primary and secondary education. At the same time, public subsidies for providers of education are now granted only to private entities that legally count as non-profit organizations. Additionally, financial contributions (copagos) by families whose children attend a public school have been lowered. Prior to this latest reform, Law No. 20.882 (Ley de Presupuestos del Sector Público), enacted in December 2015, introduced subsidies for the tuition fees paid by the most vulnerable students attending higher-education institutions (about 25% of the newly matriculated students in 2017).

In summary, the education reform of 2015 – 2016 aimed at eliminating profit, selection and copayments within the private-education sphere, and was based on four fundamental principles:
1) Ensuring that institutions provide a strong education and protect families’ financial security;
2) Creating a high-quality public-education system;
3) Providing for a modern, well-paid, highly skilled teaching profession; and
4) Creating a free (no-fee) higher-education system of high quality.

In line with these goals, the budget proposal submitted by former President Michelle Bachelet to Congress on 1 October 2014 included a 27.5% increase in public investment. Public education received a funding increase of 10.2%, largely dedicated to nurseries, kindergartens, public-school infrastructure and training programs for teachers. In keeping with one of the programmatic focuses of President Bachelet’s government, recent national budgets included an increase in educational spending. In 2018, the current government under President Piñera continued this trend with an increase of 5.9% in comparison with the fiscal year 2017. However, a significantly lower increase of 2.9% (roughly equal to inflation) was slated for educational spending in 2019.

In January 2018, the Congress adopted a tuition-free policy for university education (“gratuidad”), professional institutes and technical training centers after some modifications to Bachelet’s original initiative made by the Senate and Constitutional Court objections to one article were resolved. Thanks to the new law, 60% of students from lower-income families who study in institutions covered by the measure will not have to pay tuition fees.

The effects of the latest reforms, especially regarding higher-education access and the public-education quality, will be reliably measurable in the medium and long term. Nonetheless, they can today be seen as an important step toward more equitable access to (higher) education and as an improvement in the quality of the country’s public-education system.

Citations:
Education budgeting
http://www.dipres.gob.cl/597/articles-178468_a_presentacion_IFP_2019.pdf

https://issuu.com/dipreschile/docs/folleto_proyectoleypptos2019_dipres/1?ff

http://www.dipres.gob.cl/597/articles-169529_doc_pdf.pdf

http://www.dipres.gob.cl/595/w3-multipropertyvalues-14437-22369.html

http://www.hacienda.cl/especiales/presupuesto/presupuesto-2016/informativo-presup uesto-2016.html

http://www.dipres.gob.cl/572/articles-149470_Prioridades_periodo_2017.pdf

Educational Reform
http://leyinclusion.mineduc.cl/
http://reformaeducacional.gob.cl/documentos/
http://www.comunidadescolar.cl/documentacion/LeyInclusionEscolar/presentacion_sostenedores.pdf
http://www.gratuidad.cl/lo-que-debes-saber/
http://michellebachelet.cl/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Reforma-Educacional-14-21.pdf
http://www.latercera.com/noticia/tasas-cobertura-educacion-parvularia/
/gratuidad-educacion-superior/20000013-3503080

Social Inclusion

#35

To what extent does social policy prevent exclusion and decoupling from society?

10
 9

Policies very effectively enable societal inclusion and ensure equal opportunities.
 8
 7
 6


For the most part, policies enable societal inclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 5
 4
 3


For the most part, policies fail to prevent societal exclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 2
 1

Policies exacerbate unequal opportunities and exclusion from society.
Social Inclusion Policy
5
In terms of opportunity for upward mobility, Chile is still failing to overcome a long-lasting and widening social gap. For instance, considerable exclusion along ethnic lines and a large gap between the poor and the middle class remain. There is also little upward mobility within higher income groups. The middle class in general, and especially the lower-middle class, can be considered as highly vulnerable given the lack of support for unemployed people or those with health problems. Members of the middle classes tend to have accrued a high level of long-term indebtedness, while this population’s share in the national income is low even by Latin American standards. The country’s income distribution is highly unequal. Although GDP (2018) is about $298 billion and GDP per capita (2018) is about $15,900, nearly 70% of the population earns a monthly income of less than $800 (CLP 530,000). About half of the population earns less than $550 (CLP 380,000) per month. Furthermore, poverty rates among elderly people are disturbingly high. In general terms, political discussions and thus policy proposals on how to promote social inclusion and social mobility still tend to be characterized by profound ideological biases.

In August 2017, an important women’s-rights initiative decriminalizing abortion in three cases was approved by Congress after significant controversy. Today, women can opt for abortion in cases involving sexual assault, a nonviable pregnancy or a significant risk to the mother’s life. In November 2018, under Piñera’s government and after five years of debate, a Gender Identity Law was enacted. This allows people to change their name and sex beginning at the age of 14, and enables them to obtain a new ID card that reflects these changes.

In contrast to the trend observed in Latin America in recent years, and in violation of a mandate by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Chile has not yet passed a bill would legalize same-sex marriage. A measure on the issue was submitted to Congress by President Bachelet in 2017. Although President Piñera is opposed to granting this recognition, he has stated that he will respect the decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. At present, the Chilean state recognizes same-sex couples only in the form of civil union, a legal status that has been available to heterosexual and homosexual couples since 2015.

The reforms introduced by the Bachelet government (in the realms of taxation, education and labor) were expected to have substantial pro-inclusionary effects, but their potential impact has yet to be evident. The social crisis and mass protests beginning in October 2019 prompted the government to introduce several reform proposals, including a 20% increase in the basic solidarity pension scheme, which provides entitlements for people who do not otherwise have a pension, from $147 to $175 per month), the creation of a health insurance plan protecting families forced to pay for expensive medical treatments, and the creation of municipal-level solidarity funds intended to support the most vulnerable communities. The reform proposals were broadly perceived as patches rather than as any substantial step toward a more equitable social system. For this reason, mass mobilizations kept rising, culminating on October 25th in the largest protest the country had ever experienced. In Santiago alone, more than 1.2 million people took to the streets demanding social justice. Some political analysts and academics have argued that that a fundamental transformation of the dominant neoliberal model is needed in order for the country to recover social peace

The Piñera administration had been unable to bring an end to the protests by the end of the period under review. As a consequence of the social crisis, the government announced it would tap the Economic and Social Stability Funds (Fondo de Estabilización Económica y Social) in order to finance a social agenda of about $600 million in 2020.

Citations:
http://www.fundacionsol.cl/estudios/los-verdaderos-sueldos-chile-panorama-actual-del-valor-del-trabajo-nesi2016/
http://www.fundacionsol.cl/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Verdaderos-Salarios-2015.pdf
http://www.elmostrador.cl/mercados/2015/10/14/desigualdad-historica-este-2 015-el-1-mas-rico-de-la-poblacion-alcanzo-el-mismo-patrimonio-que-el-99-restante -del-mundo/
http://data.iadb.org
http://datos.bancomundial.org/pais/chile
http://www.oecd.org/social/broken-elevator-how-to-promote-social-mobility-9789264301085-en.htm
https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/NGDP_RPCH@WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD/CHL
http://www.ine.cl/prensa/detalle-prensa/2018/07/18/ingreso-laboral-promedio-mensual-en-chile-fue-de-$554.493-en-2017



About the right of abortion:
http://www.minsal.cl/todo-sobre-la-interrupcion-voluntaria-del-embarazo-en-tres-causales/

https://www.camara.cl/pdf.aspx?prmTIPO=DOCUMENTOCOMUNICACIONCUENTA&prmID=57528

About Gender Identity Law
https://www.gob.cl/identidaddegenero/
https://www.infobae.com/america/amer ica-latina/2018/11/28/chile-promulgo-una-ley-de-identidad-de-genero-que-permitir a-cambiar-el-sexo-en-documentos-desde-los-14-anos/

About the mass protest of October 2019:
https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-50190029

https://www.cnnchile.com/programas-completos/chile-despues-de-estas-protestas-tiene-que-ser-diferente-boric-y-undurraga-analizaron-el-estallido-social_20191025/

https://www.dw.com/es/casi-un-mill%C3%B3n-de-personas-se-manifestaron-en-santiago-de-chile/a-50996232

https://www.elmostrador.cl/destacado/2019/10/24/chile-agotamiento-de-la-democracia-semisoberana/

Health

#24

To what extent do health care policies provide high-quality, inclusive and cost-efficient health care?

10
 9

Health care policy achieves the criteria fully.
 8
 7
 6


Health care policy achieves the criteria largely.
 5
 4
 3


Health care policy achieves the criteria partly.
 2
 1

Health care policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Health Policy
7
For more than three decades, Chile has maintained a dual health system, with one pillar represented by private insurance and private healthcare services chosen by self-financing participants (typically upper-middle-income and high-income groups), and another pillar of public, highly subsidized insurance and public healthcare services for participants who pay only part of their health costs. This dual system provides broad coverage to most of the population, but with large differences in the quality of healthcare provision (especially in the waiting times for non-emergency services). Significant reforms have been implemented gradually since 2003, expanding the range of guaranteed coverage and entailing a corresponding extension of government subsidies to low- and middle-income population groups. In contrast to other policies, these reforms have been pursued in a very consistent and solid way, although some failures can be detected regarding the budget provided for public health and administrative processes. Above all, primary healthcare within the public system has shown great advances in coverage and in quality. These standards have remained stable in recent years.

In the domain of the more complex systems of secondary and tertiary healthcare, a more problematic situation is evident regarding the public healthcare system. These levels show funding gaps and an insufficiency of well-trained professionals. There is still a huge gender gap with regard to healthcare contribution rates, since maternity costs are borne only by women. For these reasons, the quality and efficiency of public healthcare provision (government clinics and hospitals) vary widely.

A survey released in May 2019 by Centro de Estudios Públicos (CEP), one of Chile’s most important polling agencies, showed that 34% of the respondents cited healthcare as their third-highest concern (after crime: 51%, and pensions: 46%).

Citations:
Healthcare as one of the chief concerns:
http://www.latinnews.com/component/k2/item/70237.html?period=2016&archive=26&Ite mid=6&cat_id=804376:chile-seeking-to-address-the-chief-public-concern&Itemid=6

https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/docs/20190612/20190612104953/encuestacep_mayo2019.pdf

Families

#33

To what extent do family support policies enable women to combine parenting with participation in the labor market?

10
 9

Family support policies effectively enable women to combine parenting with employment.
 8
 7
 6


Family support policies provide some support for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 5
 4
 3


Family support policies provide only few opportunities for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 2
 1

Family support policies force most women to opt for either parenting or employment.
Family Policy
5
In recent years, the government has sought to expand the provision of preschool education. New policies have offered Chilean parents more opportunities to place their children in free or low-priced nurseries and kindergartens. Former President Bachelet’s 2015 budget included a significant increase in public funding in both categories.
Under President Piñera, budgets in this area have remained stable. A bill that would facilitate employees’ access to day care services for children under two (sala cuna universal), independently of the company size (previously, only companies employing at least 20 women have been legally obliged to offer daycare services), was submitted to parliament in October 2019. As of the time of writing, discussions had focused on the financial mechanism and the administration of funds rather than on the purpose of this proposed law.

As yet, the day care system does not fulfill actual labor-market requirements, given that nursery opening times often do not coincide with parents’ long working hours. The average annual working hours in Chile (1,941 hours per year and worker) far exceed the OECD average (about 1,734 hours per year and worker). A measure that would gradually reduce official weekly working hours to 40 has been drafted and approved by the lower chamber of Congress, but has yet to pass the Senate.

Families’ abilities to find day care for their children depend to a great degree on their economic backgrounds, as wealthier families normally pay for private housekeepers and nannies. Aside from the issue of labor-market participation opportunities for women, Chilean family policy does not fully respect fathers’ concerns, as tuition for children is paid solely to mothers, for example. Chilean family policies still lack a holistic vision of modern families; for instance, they are weak on issues such as single parents and adoption.

The national social program “Chile grows with you” (Chile crece contigo), which supports expecting mothers and families during a child’s early years, also provides support for adolescent mothers.

Citations:
https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/educacion-estudiantes-gratuidad-llegarian-414-mil-fuerte-alza-tecnicos/335159/

Ley de presupuesto 2018/2019
http://www.dipres.gob.cl/597/articles-167693_doc_pdf.pdf

http://www.dipres.gob.cl/598/articles-187231_doc_pdf.pdf

About working hours in OECD countries:
https: //data.oecd.org/emp/hours-worked.htm

https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=ANHRS


About the law initiative for universal day nursery
https://www.gob.cl/salacunauniversal/

https://www.biobiochile.cl/noticias/nacional/chile/2019/10/02/proyecto-sala-cuna-universal-es-aprobado-en-comision-de-trabajo-y-pasa-primer-tramite-legislativo.shtml


About the reduction of the weekly working hours:
https://www.cooperativa.cl/noticias/pais/trabajo/camara-de-diputados-aprobo-proyecto-que-rebaja-jornada-laboral-a-40/2019-10-24/140336.html

https://www.cnnchile.com/pais/camara-de-diputados-aprueba-en-general-40-horas_20191024/

http://www.uchile.cl/noticias/157483/40-horas-semanales-como-puede-afectar-al-pais-reducir-la-jornada

Pensions

#28

To what extent does pension policy realize goals of poverty prevention, intergenerational equity and fiscal sustainability?

10
 9

Pension policy achieves the objectives fully.
 8
 7
 6


Pension policy achieves the objectives largely.
 5
 4
 3


Pension policy achieves the objectives partly.
 2
 1

Pension policy does not achieve the objectives at all.
Pension Policy
5
Chile’s pension system combines a redistributive means-tested pillar financed by general taxation with a self-financed pillar based on individual contributions and individual pension accounts, which are administrated by private pension fund managers and invested both domestically and abroad. The redistributive pillar was extended and broadened very substantially in the context of a pension reform in 2008 that implemented means-tested pension subsidies, guaranteeing a pension floor to all older citizens that is very high relative to the country’s minimum and average wages. The reform also provided pension-benefit entitlements to women based on the number of children they have, with no ceiling. It is a matter of some debate whether the Chilean pension system guarantees intergenerational equity and prevents old-age poverty. It can be argued that both public and private pension systems are fiscally sustainable (like those of Norway, the best-funded system among all OECD countries), and thus provide both intergenerational and intragenerational equity across income groups. Nevertheless, the Chilean system largely fails to guarantee poverty prevention among large parts of the socioeconomically weaker and elderly population who depend on the support of their families or have no pensions at all if they worked under unstable and/or informal conditions. Thus, because of the capitalization logic, the pension system has a negligible redistributional effect.

An advisory presidential commission (Comisión Asesora Presidencial sobre el Sistema de Pensiones) was set up in April 2014 with the task of analyzing possible changes to the pension system, which was established under Augusto Pinochet and is strongly criticized as being elitist. The commission’s final report, presented in September 2015, contained no radical reform proposals, but did suggest some slight changes such as an increase in contributions and an expansion in the coverage provided by basic solidarity pensions (pensión básica solidaria). The current scenario indicates that poverty among the elderly will rise in the medium and long term if reforms are not introduced soon. Thus, it is no surprise that surveys indicate that the topic of pensions ranks as one of the population’s most pressing concerns.

In 2015 and 2016, massive demonstrations throughout the country revealed the dissatisfaction with the pension system. The mass protest of October 2019, which academics and political analysts have referred to as a social explosion (estallido social), were widely motivated by this generalized discontent with the social security system, including the pension system.

In October 2018, President Piñera announced a reform to the pension system. However, due to the massive protests and strikes of October 2019, this reform initiative will be reevaluated. Among the first measures announced by the government in an effort to calm the situation was an increase of 20% in the minimum social pension (from approximately $150 to $180), along with an increase in the employer contribution rate from 10% to 15% of the worker’s wages. Nevertheless, the announcement of these “first aid measures” were widely regarded as patches to an unjust and thus unsustainable system. The political and social crisis of October 2019 ultimately breathed new life into political and academic debates regarding the possibility of more profound change.

Citations:
http://ciperchile.cl/2015/11/18/conclusione s-de-la-comision-bravo-todo-esta-al-reves-con-las-pensiones/

The Commission’s Executive Summery:
http://www.comision-pensiones.cl/Documentos/GetResumen

Centro de Estudios Públicos:
https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/docs/20190612/20190612104953/encuestacep_mayo2019.pdf

https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/artic/20180927/asocfile/20180927122721/cap2_las_inseguridades_de_los_chilenos_rgonzalez_aherrera_emunoz.pdf

About the pension reform proposal 2018/2019:
http://www.economiaynegocios.cl/noticias/noticias.asp?id=515123
https://lta.reuters.com/articulo/topNews/idLTAKCN1N302C-OUSLT

https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/reforma-previsional-gobierno-anuncia-alza-08-cotizacion-seguros-sociales/878365/

https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/reforma-previsional-gobierno-cede-ante-la-oposicion-y-anuncia-que-subira-la-cotizacion-del-empleador-en-un-punto-adicional/877587/

https://www.efe.com/efe/america/economia/pinera-anuncia-reforma-de-pensiones-que-aumenta-aporte-laboral-y-estatal/20000011-3795835

Integration

#34

How effectively do policies support the integration of migrants into society?

10
 9

Cultural, education and social policies effectively support the integration of migrants into society.
 8
 7
 6


Cultural, education and social policies seek to integrate migrants into society, but have failed to do so effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Cultural, education and social policies do not focus on integrating migrants into society.
 2
 1

Cultural, education and social policies segregate migrant communities from the majority society.
Integration Policy
6
The number of immigrants in Chile has increased significantly during the last years. The integration of immigrants from other Latin American countries, who represent nearly 75% of all immigrants (by far the largest group of foreigners in Chile), does not face significant difficulties since these immigrants share a common language and, to a certain degree, a similar cultural background. Historically, Peruvians have been the biggest immigrant group in Chile. However, during the period under review, more residence applications were submitted by Venezuelans, due to the multiple crises ongoing in that country. Since 2013, immigration from Venezuela has grown by a factor of 19.

Recent estimates indicate that there were about 1 million immigrants living in Chile at the end of 2018 (about 5.5% of the population), with nearly one-third of immigrants lacking a valid residence permit. This is a significant increase from 2014, when about 420,000 immigrants were living in Chile (about 2.3% of the population at that time)

In 2016 and 2017, laws were passed that provide support to refugees and facilitate their integration into Chilean society. Refugee children now receive expedited access to Chilean citizenship regardless of age and residence time when at least one of their parents chooses Chilean citizenship. Before this reform, only adult children qualified to receive citizenship through a parent. Additionally, some administrative barriers have been lowered, making it easier for migrants to attend public schools.

On the basis of Chile’s experience with the humanitarian resettlement of Palestinians, Michelle Bachelet’s government promised to host between 50 and 100 Syrian families, regardless of their religion. However, only 14 families had arrived by the end of October 2017.

In April 2018, President Piñera presented a new law on migration to Congress that would modify the regulation introduced in 2013. Anticipating a long parliamentary debate, the executive passed several administrative decrees addressing “urgent challenges,” which included modifications to the existing law on aliens (Ley de Extranjería). Following the introduction of these executive decrees, visas to stay in Chile have to be issued in a person’s country of origin, and the ability to apply for a temporary work visa in Chile was eliminated.

Although President Piñera belongs to the small group of Latin American heads of state that did not support the U.N. Global Compact for Migration of December 2018, he joined 10 additional Latin American countries in signing the Quito Declaration on the Venezuelan migration crisis in September 2018, which recognized the need for greater regional cooperation in this realm.

In 2019, Chile became the third-most-popular Latin American destination for Venezuelan migrants. In July of that year, about 400,000 Venezuelans were living in Chile, representing 30% of all immigrants registered in the county. In April 2018, President Piñera introduced the so-called Visa of Democratic Responsibility, which allows Venezuelans seeking refuge from the crisis in their country to reside in Chile for 12 months. By the end of June 2019, approximately 97,000 applications had been for this visa, and it had been granted to 35,000 individuals.

Citations:
http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-hea lth/international-migration-outlook-2015_migr_outlook-2015-en#page196

http://www.latercera.com/noticia/nacional/2014/09/680-596709-9-inmigrantes-en-chile-mas -de-dos-tercios-trabajan-y-el-42-cotiza-en-fonasa.shtml

http://www.extranjeria.gob.cl/media/2016/02/Anuario-Estad%C3%ADstico-Nacional-Migraci%C3%B3n-en-Chile -2005-2014.pdf

http://www.ilo.org/santiago/sala-de-prensa/WCMS_555337/lang–es/index.htm

http://www.latercera.com/noticia/venezolanos-lideran-solicitudes-residencia-chile-2017/

Refugee policy: http://www.acnur.org/noticias/noticia/presidenta-de-chile-se-compromete-con-la-c risis-actual-de-los-refugiados/

https://cdn.digital.gob.cl/filer_public/d2/39/d239d0df-c4e9-488e-a36f-8b1ac2ca00ef/nueva_ley_de_migracion.pdf

http://www.extranjeria.gob.cl/media/2017/07/AnuarioEstadisticoNacionalDEM2015.pdf

https://www.gob.cl/nuevaleydemigracion/


Chilean plan for Syrian refugees: http://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/opinion/2016/08/14/refugio-sirio-en-chile-un- imperativo-etico/
https://migrantes.mineduc.cl/2017/09/25/difusion-territorial-la-normativa-favorece-la-inclusion-estudiantes-extranjeros-sistema-educativo/

Venezuelan migration crisis:
https://www.latercera.com/nacional/noticia/venezolanos-ingresado-chile-este-ano-llegan-147-mil/296539/
https://www.cnnchile.com/pais/ingreso-venezolanos-cayo-850-a-60-diarios-vigencia-visa-consular_20190712/

https://www.24horas.cl/data/extranjeria-ha-entregado-mas-de-31-mil-visas-de-responsabilidad-democratica-a-venezolanos–3289539

https://www.df.cl/noticias/economia-y-politica/politica/en-medio-de-nuevas-exigencias-venezolanos-ya-representan-el-30-de-los/2019-07-03/092958.html


Executive decrees on migration:
http://www.eldesconcierto.cl/2018/04/10/decretazo-migratorio-las-claves-de-los-cambios-a-la-ley-de-extranjeria-que-prepara-pinera/

Quito declaration:
https://www.voanoticias.com/a/doce-pa%C3%ADses-emitir%C3%A1n-declaraci%C3%B3n-sobre-crisis-migratoria-de-venezolanos/4556841.html

UN-Global Compact for Migration:
https://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/opinion/2018/12/17/la-retirada-chilena-del-pacto-migratorio-de-la-onu/

Safe Living

#38

How effectively does internal security policy protect citizens against security risks?

10
 9

Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks very effectively.
 8
 7
 6


Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks more or less effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Internal security policy does not effectively protect citizens against security risks.
 2
 1

Internal security policy exacerbates the security risks.
Internal Security Policy
6
Internal security policy is in general quite effective. While organized crime is not apparent to the average citizen, there are some disturbing trends: selective acts of terrorism (or acts classified as such) based on ethnic or political grounds, and a slightly rising incidence of drug trafficking (and related crimes). Homicide rates in Chile are among Latin America’s lowest. Common crime rates have not shown any significant changes since 2012. Still, public perceptions of criminality tend to overestimate the statistical reality. Private security services are widespread in the wealthier urban areas, especially in Santiago. According to a poll released in May 2019 by the Chilean survey institute Centro de Estudios Públicos, insecurity remains the overriding public concern (51%), ahead of pensions (46%) and healthcare (34%), despite the fact that crime rates, especially regarding serious crime, have been relatively stable during the last few years.

Chile has an extremely high share of prisoners among the younger population in particular. Prevention measures are not well developed. The last two governments each launched anti-crime programs focusing on detection and repression rather than on prevention. These had very mixed results. Crime-control programs such as the Plan Cuadrante and the marked increase in the numbers of police officers have significantly reduced crime rates. Penal-code reforms and their implementation over the last eight years have also significantly raised the efficiency of crime detection and criminal prosecution. In the government’s 2017 and 2018 state budget, security was one of the top four priorities (along with education, health and social security).

In July 2018, President Piñera received the final report of the working group on security (Mesa de Trabajo por la Seguridad). The working group had consisted of government ministers, undersecretaries, senators, deputies, mayors and civil society representatives and been debating public safety issues for 90 days. The final report included 150 recommendations across five topic areas, namely: modernizing the police, fostering an “intelligent state system,” tightening controls on the circulation of firearms, stressing the key role of municipalities in the realm of public security, and improving the coordination between actors in the criminal prosecution system. This represented a further step on the way to a new national public security agreement, one of President Piñera’s stated goals. Some of these recommendations were included in the draft laws that the executive presented to Congress in November 2018.

In response to mostly peaceful protests in October 2019, President Piñera declared a state of emergency and imposed a curfew that lasted over a week, deploying police and military forces to restore social order. Although social tensions had been growing for several years, the scope of these protests overwhelmed the government and political analysts. In the context of these protests, state security forces – primarily the police (Carabineros) – committed massive human-rights abuses. According to the Chilean Institute for Human Rights, the protests claimed the lives of at least 23 people, more than 1,700 were injured and upwards of 5,000 were detained. There have been informal reports of severe human-rights violations, but official investigations were still under way at the time of this writing. Former president and current High Commissioner of the United Nations Office for Human Rights (OHCHR) Michelle Bachelet sent a team to Chile tasked with investigating the incidents. Denouncing the declaration of a state of emergency and the imposed curfew as a violation of the public’s fundamental rights, the opposition filed a “constitutional accusation” against the minister of the interior in November 2019.

The facts underlying the accusations and the results of the investigations initiated by the OHCHR clearly bear on the evaluation of the issue. However, the first official results of the inquiry were not expected until the end of November 2019, beyond the period under review.

Citations:
http://www.ine.cl/canales/chile_estadistico/encuestas_seguridadciudadana/victimizacion2013/presentacion_x_encuesta_nacional_seguridad_ciudadana.pdf

UNODC report 2013:
http://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf

On insecurity as the chief public concern:
https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/docs/20190612/20190612104953/encuestacep_mayo2019.pdf

http://www.seguridadpublica.gov.cl/estadisticas/tasa-de-denuncias-y-detenciones/delitos-de-mayor-connotacion-social-casos-policiales/

http://cead.spd.gov.cl/wp-content/uploads/file-manager/Presentaci%C3%B3n-Estad%C3%ADsticas-2do-trim-2018.pdf

Final Report on Public Security:
http://www.msgg.gob.cl/wp/index.php/2018/07/19/presidente-pinera-recibe-propuestas-del-acuerdo-nacional-por-la-seguridad-publica/

Draft law Public Securita:
https://www.gob.cl/noticias/gobierno-firma-proyectos-de-ley-del-acuerdo-nacional-por-la-seguridad-publica/

About the riots of October 2019:
https://radio.uchile.cl/2019/10/25/mision-de-derechos-humanos-de-la-onu-llegara-a-chile-el-proximo-28-de-octubre/

https://www.indh.cl/

https://www.latercera.com/nacional/noticia/estado-emergencia-marchas-mas-masivas-menos-violencia/875397/

https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-50199212

https://www.t13.cl/noticia/nacional/marcha-mas-grande-de-chile-masiva-26-10-2019

https://www.dw.com/es/casi-un-mill%C3%B3n-de-personas-se-manifestaron-en-santiago-de-chile/a-50996232

Global Inequalities

#29

To what extent does the government demonstrate an active and coherent commitment to promoting equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries?

10
 9

The government actively and coherently engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. It frequently demonstrates initiative and responsibility, and acts as an agenda-setter.
 8
 7
 6


The government actively engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. However, some of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 5
 4
 3


The government shows limited engagement in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. Many of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 2
 1

The government does not contribute (and often undermines) efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries.
Global Social Policy
7
The Agencia Chilena de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AGCID) under the Ministry for External Relations has been the national agency responsible for international cooperation, South-South and triangular cooperation since 1990. Its current Strategy for the International Development was defined for the period 2015-2018.

While Chile is a member of the OECD, it has only an observer status in the Development Assistance Committee (DAC).

Chile formally follows and promotes the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Agenda (Agenda 2030) and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals in its foreign policies. In practice, those criteria do not necessarily constitute the main emphasis when it comes to decision-making regarding international cooperation with developing countries in the region (Chile cooperates nearly exclusively with Latin American developing and emerging countries). Chile offers virtually no subsidies to domestic producers, and does not maintain protectionist trade barriers to imports.

Citations:
Agencia Chilena de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AGCID):
https://www.agci.cl/index.php/que-es-la-cooperacion

https://www.agci.cl/images/centro_documentacion/ESTRATEGIA_DE_COOPERACIÓN_26nov15.pdf
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