Denmark

   

Social Policies

#2
Key Findings
With a highly developed welfare system, Denmark falls into the top group internationally (rank 2) with respect to social policies. Its score on this measure has improved by 0.1 point relative to 2014.

After a period of mediocre student scores on international tests, results have improved in recent years. Education reforms have lengthened school hours, boosted math and language requirements, and increased funding. A policy that reduced the education budget is being reversed.

Most social transfers have been reformed to strengthen incentives to work, with eligibility rules including a residence and work requirement. Poverty and inequality rates are low but have risen in recent years. Tax-financed healthcare services are available to all citizens, but healthcare system quality does not reflect the high spending levels.

A robust childcare system allows both parents to work, with generous maternal and paternal leave provided. Recent pension-system reforms have improved sustainability. Immigration-related tensions have led to a tightening of rules, but labor-market and educational integration is proving increasingly successful. A crime wave has led to new border checks at the bridge-tunnel to Sweden.

Education

#6

To what extent does education policy deliver high-quality, equitable and efficient education and training?

10
 9

Education policy fully achieves the criteria.
 8
 7
 6


Education policy largely achieves the criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Education policy partially achieves the criteria.
 2
 1

Education policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Education Policy
7
Education spending in Denmark is among highest in the OECD, but educational outcomes are vividly discussed. Traditionally, Danish pupils have not scored well on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) problem-solving tests. However, Denmark made some progress in the 2015 PISA results, scoring above the OECD average in science, mathematics and reading. This was an improvement over the past where Denmark’s overall score was around the OECD average. Though there remains scope for improvement.

These improvements are partly attributable to recent reforms, including reforms to the primary and lower-secondary school systems. A major reform in 2013 granted more discretionary power to the school principal to allocate teacher resources and keep pupils in school for more hours. Longer school days, more assisted learning, lessons in Danish and math, and the teaching of foreign languages (English made compulsory from level 1, German and French from level 5) were also part of the policy. To strengthen the continued development of teachers’ competencies the government has allocated one billion DKK from 2014 to 2020.

The government set the target that 95% of young Danes should complete a general or vocational upper secondary education program. According to the most recent forecasts, this goal is close to being reached (the prediction is 93% for the current cohort). However, it should be noted that the goal is formulated in terms of education level achieved 25 years after having left primary school, in which sense the target is not very ambitious.

One problem is the fact that immigrant students score markedly lower than Danish students, a problem particularly pronounced among boys. However, second-generation students do relatively better than first-generation students, especially girls.

Vocational and university educations have also been on the political agenda, but challenges remain both in relation to the intake of students and lifelong learning. Universities have been under pressure to shorten the length of study and channel students into educational programs oriented toward business.

Since 2016, the educational sector has been affected by the so-called reprioritizing contribution (omprioritetsbidrag), which has reduced the education budget by 2%. The new Social Democratic government has announced that it would end this annual saving target and transfer the money back to the education system, although the precise mechanism has not yet been determined.

Citations:
Ministry of Education, Improving the Public School – overview of reform of standards in the Danish public school,” http://eng.uvm.dk/~/media/UVM/Filer/English/PDF/140708%20Improving%20the%20Public%20School.pdf (accessed 17 October 2014)

Ministry of Education, Improving Vocational Education and Training – overview of reform of the Danish vocational system. http://eng.uvm.dk/~/media/UVM/Filer/English/PDF/140708%20Improving%20Vocational%20Education%20and%20Training.pdf

Minstry of Finance, “Velfærd først – tryghed, tillid og en grøn fremtid: Finansforslaget 2020, Oktober 2019,” https://www.fm.dk/publikationer/2019/finanslovspjece-2020 (accessed 15 October 2019)

OECD, “PISA 2012 Results in Focus,” https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf (Re-accessed 10 October 2018).

Udvalg for Kvalitet og Relevans i de Videregående Uddannelser, 2014, Høje mål – fremragende undervisning i de videregående uddannelser, København.

“Aftale til 2,5 milliarder til voksen- og efteruddannelse,” https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/politik/aftale-til-25-milliarder-til-voksen-og-efteruddannelse-paa-plads (Accessed 7 November 2017).

Social Inclusion

#3

To what extent does social policy prevent exclusion and decoupling from society?

10
 9

Policies very effectively enable societal inclusion and ensure equal opportunities.
 8
 7
 6


For the most part, policies enable societal inclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 5
 4
 3


For the most part, policies fail to prevent societal exclusion effectively and ensure equal opportunities.
 2
 1

Policies exacerbate unequal opportunities and exclusion from society.
Social Inclusion Policy
8
Inequality and poverty are low by international comparison, but have been increasing in recent years. While reforms of various welfare benefits have increased work incentives, they have also reduced incomes for some groups.

Employment rates are high for men and women, but a distinguishing feature of the welfare model is that most people who are not in employment are entitled to some form of social transfer. Somewhat simplified, the debate is split between those arguing that the welfare state significantly undermines work incentives and those arguing that most unemployed people are unable to work due to various issues (e.g., social problems or a lack of qualifications) that make it difficult/impossible for them to find jobs.

Most social transfers have recently been reformed with a greater focus on employment. The aim of these reforms is to strengthen the incentive to work, but it may result in poverty for those failing or unable to respond to these incentives. The reform of the disability pension scheme implies that the disability pension cannot be granted to individuals below the age of 40 (except for cases of severe or permanent loss of work capability). Instead, the focus has shifted to using and developing an individual’s remaining work capabilities. Likewise, the social assistance scheme has been reformed with a particular focus on improving the educational attainment of young workers (people below the age of 30). For other age groups, the system now offers more flexibility and individualized solutions. Eligibility for social assistance depends on both a residence requirement (with immigrants needing to have been resident in Denmark for nine out of the last 10 years) and a work requirement (225 hours paid work within the last year). Moreover, there is an upper cap on total support (social assistance, housing supplement, child supplement). Immigrants not satisfying the residence requirement receive the lower so-called introduction benefit.

Finally, assessed in terms of life satisfaction, Denmark scores very well in various international comparisons, sometimes ranking as the happiest country in the world.

The new government aims to improve welfare arrangements, and strengthen measures to tackle increasing inequality and especially child poverty. A temporary benefit supplement has been introduced for families with children that are affected by the upper cap on total support or receive the “integration” benefit. Moreover, a budget increase for municipalities and regions to fund various welfare and educational programs has been announced.

Citations:
John Campbell, “Note to Denmark: Don’t Change a Thing,” http://www.dartmouth.edu/~vox /0506/0417/denmark.html (accessed 19 April 2013).

“Det betyder kontanthjælpsreformen,” http://www.stakato.dk/det-betyder-kontanthjaelpsreformen/ (accessed 19 April 2013).

Ekspertudvalg om fattigdom, 2013, En dansk fattigdomsgrænse – analyser og forslag til opgørelsesmetoder, København.

“Stort fald i antal modtagere af kontanthjælpsydelser,” https://www.dst.dk/da/Statistik/nyt/NytHtml?cid=25774 (Accessed 7 November 2018).

“10 Most Happy Countries Around the World,” https://www.wonderslist.com/10-most-happy-countries-in-the-world/ (accessed 7 November 2018).

“Politisk forståelse mellem Socialdemokratiet, Radikale Enstre, SF og Enhedslisten: Retfærdig retning for Danmark,”https://ufm.dk/ministeriet/regeringsgrundlag-vision-og-strategier/regeringen-mette-frederiksens-forstaelsespapir (accessed 15 October 2019).

Health

#3

To what extent do health care policies provide high-quality, inclusive and cost-efficient health care?

10
 9

Health care policy achieves the criteria fully.
 8
 7
 6


Health care policy achieves the criteria largely.
 5
 4
 3


Health care policy achieves the criteria partly.
 2
 1

Health care policy does not achieve the criteria at all.
Health Policy
8
There is a universal entitlement for all citizens to healthcare, regardless of economic circumstance. Services are offered “free of charge” and elected regional councils have governed the sector since 2007. Because financing through taxes depends on the state budget, regional authorities depend on annual budget negotiations with the Ministry of Finance.

Although healthcare spending in Denmark is high, the OECD considers its performance “subpar.” In 2018, health spending in Denmark was 10.5% of GDP (11th highest among OECD countries), of which 8.8% is publicly funded (fifth highest among OECD countries). There has been an upward trend in healthcare expenditures, mainly driven by a policy shift from a top-down system to a more demand-driven system. This shift has been motivated by a concern about long waiting lists. Patients now have a “time guarantee,” making it possible to opt for a private provider if a public hospital can’t meet a specified wait time limit for treatment.

Life expectancy in Denmark in 2018 was 81 years, slightly above the OECD average, but below the level in comparable countries. Life expectancy is on an upward trend. There has been a marked decline in smoking in Denmark in recent years, but obesity rates have increased. The social gradient in health remains strong.

Recently, there has been much public debate about the quality of hospital services. Increasing medicine prices are putting pressure on the financing of healthcare. A recent priority has been cancer treatment, an area in which Denmark has been lagging behind equivalent countries.

The establishment of large centralized (rather than regionally administered) hospitals has been contested and various problems in relation to, for example, electronic patient records remain unresolved. There has been debate around the idea of bringing some basic healthcare activities closer to the population via local healthcare centers. The role of the regions has also been debated and it was proposed that responsibility for healthcare should be transferred from the regions to the central state. However, this proposal does not have the support of the new government.

The new Social Democrat government has increased funding for the regional healthcare sector in order to employ more doctors, nurses and other healthcare personnel. The aim is to increase the number of nurses by 1,000 by 2021. In an agreement with the Danish regions and municipalities, the government has agreed to train 100 extra doctors in general medicine to increase public access to general physicians.

Citations:
OECD, Health at a glance 2019,” (accessed 30 novemeber 2019).

Finance Ministry, Finanslovforslaget 2020. https://www.fm.dk/publikationer/2019/finanslovspjece-2020 (accessed 15 October 2019).

Families

#4

To what extent do family support policies enable women to combine parenting with participation in the labor market?

10
 9

Family support policies effectively enable women to combine parenting with employment.
 8
 7
 6


Family support policies provide some support for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 5
 4
 3


Family support policies provide only few opportunities for women who want to combine parenting and employment.
 2
 1

Family support policies force most women to opt for either parenting or employment.
Family Policy
9
Denmark scores well on family policy in international comparisons. Day care centers, preschools and kindergartens allow flexibility for both parents to work. Indeed, female employment in Denmark is among the highest among OECD countries. Comparative research also shows that men do more household work than men in many other countries. Danes regard day care and preschool facilities as an indispensable public service. The system of parental leave, in connection with childbirth, is relatively generous and men also have parental leave rights.

Municipalities are in charge of day care facilities which may be either public institutions or private. These facilities contribute to better family policy. Social parties and business play a role too.

The great majority of children attend day care facilities in Denmark. In 2017, about 70% of children aged two and under were in day care, the highest rate in the OECD. About 95% of children aged three to five attended some kind of preschool institution. There is a user payment (means tested) for day care, but it does not cover the full cost, and the system is thus tax-subsidized. There has been a large increase in the number of preschools in recent years.

Danish family policy is continuously debated. A primary policy aim is to facilitate labor market participation for women. Many women want to be in work, not only for financial reasons, but also for career reasons. Recently, concerns have been raised on the quality and flexibility of day care due to strained finances in the municipalities.

A recent economic agreement between the government and municipalities will abolish the current modernization program for the municipalities and ease municipal budgets. Furthermore, the budget proposal for 2020 includes a temporary child support for families currently receiving little support because of existing ceilings. A commission will study the issue and recommend a more permanent solution.

Citations:
OECD, 2016, Enrolment in childcare and preschool, OECD – Social Policy Division – Directorate of Employment, Labor and Social Affairs, https://www.oecd.org/els/soc/PF3_2_Enrolment_childcare_preschool.pdf (accessed 7 Demceber 2017).

“Denmark: Combining work and family successfully,” http://europa.eu/epic/countries/denmark/index_en.htm (accessed 17 October 2014).

Minstry of Finance, “Velfærd først – tryghed, tillid og en grøn fremtid: Finansforslaget 2020, Oktober 2019,” https://www.fm.dk/publikationer/201 9/finanslovspjece-2020 (accessed 15 October 2019)

Pensions

#2

To what extent does pension policy realize goals of poverty prevention, intergenerational equity and fiscal sustainability?

10
 9

Pension policy achieves the objectives fully.
 8
 7
 6


Pension policy achieves the objectives largely.
 5
 4
 3


Pension policy achieves the objectives partly.
 2
 1

Pension policy does not achieve the objectives at all.
Pension Policy
9
The Danish pension system is well-structured in accordance with the World Bank’s three-pillar conceptual framework. The first pillar is a tax-financed universal base pension with means-tested supplements. This pillar includes Denmark’s ATP pension scheme. The second pillar comprises privately organized, contribution-based labor market pensions. The contribution rate, which has increased over the years, is now 12% or more for most employees. The third pillar involves tax-subsidized pension arrangements (tied until retirement) offered by insurance companies, pension funds and banks as well as other forms of savings (for most households in the form of housing wealth).

The combination of the different pillars of the pension scheme creates a pension system that both protects against low income for the elderly (distributional objective) and ensures that most have a pension which is reasonable in relation to the income earned when the pensioner was active in the labor market (high replacement rates). The Danish pension scheme has for several years ranked in the top of the Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index. The main challenges involve the complexity of the system, the possible disincentive effects on savings and retirement arising from the means testing of public pensions, and the problem of citizens outside the mandatory labor market pensions (the “residual” pension group).

Statutory ages in the pension system (in public pensions for early retirement and age limits for payment of funds from pension schemes) are established by legislation. Recent reforms – the 2006 welfare reform and the 2011 retirement reform – increase these ages considerably to cope with the aging population. First, the retirement age (early retirement and pensions) is being gradually increased and the early retirement period is being reduced from five to three years. Then, retirement ages will be linked to developments in life expectancy at the age of 60 such that the expected pension period will become 14.5 years (17.5 including early retirement) in the long run (currently the expected pension period is between 18.5 and 23.5 years). An attempt to phase these changes in more quickly did not get political support.

The Social Democratic government has promised that worn-out workers should be able to retire early. The difficulty will involve delineating who would qualify for early retirement and how the system will it be financed. The government will be under pressure to find answers in order to avoid reneging on its promise.

Citations:
Pensionskommissionen, 2015, The Danish Pension System – Internationally Praised but not without Problems (Det danske pensionssystem – international anerkendt, men ikke problemfrit), Copenhagen.

Regeringen Mette Frederiksens forståelsespapir, https://ufm.dk/ministeriet/regeringsgrundlag-vision-og-strategier/regeringen-mette-frederiksens-forstaelsespapir (accessed 15 October 2019)

Integration

#13

How effectively do policies support the integration of migrants into society?

10
 9

Cultural, education and social policies effectively support the integration of migrants into society.
 8
 7
 6


Cultural, education and social policies seek to integrate migrants into society, but have failed to do so effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Cultural, education and social policies do not focus on integrating migrants into society.
 2
 1

Cultural, education and social policies segregate migrant communities from the majority society.
Integration Policy
7
On 1 July 2019, there were about 800,000 immigrants and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark, or 13.8% of the population (9% immigrants, 5% descendants). Roughly two-thirds of immigrants are from non-western countries.

Immigration rules have been tightened since the 2002, including the family reunification rule introduced in 2004. Since peaking in 2015, immigration from countries outside the European Union has fallen, while immigration from within the European Union for work remains very important.

The employment rate of immigrants and their descendants aged 16 to 64 is low compared to other groups, though it has been increasing. As a consequence, there is a substantial employment gap, taking into account the age distribution. Immigrants from non-Western countries have an employment rate 22% lower than that of ethnic Danes in 2019 (for descendants the gap is 16%). The gap is higher for women (24%) than for men (19%). For immigrants from Western countries, the gap is about 11% (for descendants about 6%). Though the gaps in employment rates should be viewed in light of high employment rates in Denmark for both men and women, the high qualification requirements for securing a job and the high minimum wage.

An increasing proportion of immigrants report feeling more integrated and having more Danish friends, with fewer saying they have experienced discrimination. In addition, many more immigrants speak Danish than ever before. Half of male refugees are in work within three years and children of refugees are integrating into Danish schools faster than in the past. The combination of a strong economy and active integration policies are starting to produce improvements.

Concerning educational achievements, immigrants and their descendants – especially girls – are making progress. For the age group 25 to 34 years old, 80% of women with Danish ethnicity and 67% of women with a foreign background, and 73% of men with Danish ethnicity and 49% of men with a foreign background have completed secondary education.

There is broad political support for tight immigration policies and various measures have been introduced to reduce immigration (also for family unification) in recent years. The conditions of temporary residency permits are being reassessed and the scope for temporary residents to return is being discussed. These measures should be viewed together with changes to the social safety net and reduced transfers to immigrants.

The former government planned to maintain the temporary border control until control over the Schengen area’s external borders had improved. Special initiatives to tackle the creation of parallel societies, which have high rates of crime and promote anti-Danish values, were introduced. Rejected asylum-seekers will be returned. Denmark stopped receiving so-called quota refugees through the United Nations, even though some municipalities declared that they were ready to receive more. The new Social Democrat government, which came to power in June 2019, has announced that Denmark will start taking quota refugees again. The Social Democratic party has committed itself to a strict immigration policy, which allowed it to capture votes from the Danish People’s Party. However, the other parties in the “red” block, especially the Social Liberals, are in favor of a more liberal immigration policy.

While nearly everybody expected immigration policy to be the main topic in both the European Parliament election in May 2019 and the June 2019 national election, the main topic turned out to be climate change. The Danish People’s Party, which had no environmental policy, suffered stunning defeats in both elections.

Another controversial issue has been the question of attracting qualified workers from abroad, which is arguably more a labor market policy issue. The rules for this type of immigration are debated in the context of the currently low unemployment rate. The new government has indicated that opportunities for recruiting qualified workers will be improved.

Citations:
Web site: http://uim.dk/tal-og-statistik/tal-og-statistik-om-integration

Udlændinge og integration,” https://www.regeringen.dk/regeringens-politik-a-%C3%A5/udlaendinge-og-integration/ (accessed 21 October 2017.

“Hvor mange kommer, og Hvorfra?” http://refugees.dk/fakta/tal-og-statistik/hvor-mange-kommer-og-hvorfra/ (Accessed 21 October 2017).

Udlændinge- og integrationsministeriet, “Tal på udlændingeområdet pr. 31.08.2018.”

“Regeringen når eget mål om flygtninge i arbejde,” Berlingske. 10 September 2018.

“Forsker: Det går bedre med integrationen end vi tror,” Danmark Søndag, 21. October 2018.

“Retfærdig retning for Danmark,” https://ufm.dk/ministeriet/regeringsgrundlag-vision-og-strategier/regeringen-mette-frederiksens-forstaelsespapir (accessed 15 October 2019)

Safe Living

#10

How effectively does internal security policy protect citizens against security risks?

10
 9

Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks very effectively.
 8
 7
 6


Internal security policy protects citizens against security risks more or less effectively.
 5
 4
 3


Internal security policy does not effectively protect citizens against security risks.
 2
 1

Internal security policy exacerbates the security risks.
Internal Security Policy
8
The security forces and police are responsible for internal security (falling under the Ministry of Justice). Cooperation between the police and defense intelligence services was increased after 9/11. International cooperation has also increased among Western allies.

Denmark is not a violent society. The homicide rate is low and Danes normally trust the police. However, burglaries are not uncommon and crimes related to drug use, especially in the bigger cities, have increased. Recently incidences of gang-crime have increased, including shooting incidences. Terrorist events at home and abroad have increased tensions.

Denmark has opted out of the justice and home affairs cooperation within the European Union (since 1993), a position that was reaffirmed by referendum in 2015. Subsequent negotiations led to an agreement with Europol, which allows Denmark to take part in police cooperation. It remains to be seen how satisfactory the agreement will be, although there is no majority support for re-opening the issue.

Following the large influx of refugees and asylum-seekers in 2015, the government reintroduced border controls, a policy that will be continued by the new government, despite being contested by some groups. Denmark does not support a common EU agreement on the distribution of refugees. The question of continuing national border controls continues to be discussed.

In an opinion poll in November 2015, 27% answered very likely and 54% answered likely on the possibility that a terror attack will occur in the next few years. The same poll showed that an overwhelming majority thought that such attach was likely to be committed by a fundamentalist Islamic group.

Recently, there have been a number of attacks, including bombings, in the Copenhagen area, which have been linked to Swedish gangs. The new Social Democratic government has therefore introduced new temporary border checks at the bridge-tunnel that connects Copenhagen and Malmø in Sweden, and ferry connections between the two countries. The government has also allocated DKK 1.2 billion in the budget proposal for 2020.

Citations:
Murder plot against Danish cartoonist, http://jyllands-posten.dk/uknews/EC E3923645/murder-plot-against-danish-cartoonist/ (accessed 18 April 2013)

DIIS, “Opinion Polls,” http://pure.diis.dk/ws/files/563878/Yearbook_2016_Web.pdf (accessed 22 October 2016).

Eurobarometer, Spring 2015. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/eb/eb83/eb83_first_en.pdf (Accessed 21 October 2017).

“Iran attempted political assassination in Denmark:PET,” https://www.thelocal.dk/20181030/iran-attempted-assassination-in-denmark-pet (accessed 7 November 2018).

“Grænsekontrollen har nu kostet mindst 1,25 milliarder kroner,” https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/politik/graensekontrollen-har-nu-kostet-mindst-125-milliarder-kroner (assessed 16 October 2019)

Finance Ministry, Finanslovforslaget 2020. https://www.fm.dk/publikationer/2019/finanslovspjece-2020 (accessed 16 October 2019).

Global Inequalities

#3

To what extent does the government demonstrate an active and coherent commitment to promoting equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries?

10
 9

The government actively and coherently engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. It frequently demonstrates initiative and responsibility, and acts as an agenda-setter.
 8
 7
 6


The government actively engages in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. However, some of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 5
 4
 3


The government shows limited engagement in international efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries. Many of its measures or policies lack coherence.
 2
 1

The government does not contribute (and often undermines) efforts to promote equal socioeconomic opportunities in developing countries.
Global Social Policy
9
Assisting developing countries has broad support. Denmark is one of only five countries in the world to contribute more than the U.N. target of 0.7% of Gross National Income (GNI) to development assistance. Denmark’s development aid has been on a downward trend, but amounts to 0.72% of GNI. Some of the funds have been redirected to address the increasing inflow asylum-seekers. There will be increased focus on the regions in the Middle East and Africa from where many refugees come. Denmark’s humanitarian aid will not be reduced.

In May 2016, 40% of the Danes felt that it was very important to help people in developing countries and 49% felt that it was fairly important. At the time of the great influx of refugees in September 2015, 30% of the Danes supported giving more development aid, 35% the same amount, 28% less. Overall, there is still relatively strong support for development aid in Denmark.

The government’s current development strategy for 2018 prioritizes: increased efforts in areas close to war and conflict; increased focus on migration, including the return of illegal migrants to their home countries; increased development financing by mobilizing private capital; and increased support for multilateral efforts for women and girls’ sexual and reproductive health and rights. About 70% of Denmark’s official development aid (ODA) is bilateral, the remaining 30% is multilateral.

Development policy was not an important issue in connection with the 2019 parliamentary election.

Citations:
OECD, Development Assistance Committee (DAC), Peer Review Denmark 2011. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/oecd-development-assistance-peer-reviews-denmark-2011_9789264117082-en#page1 (Accessed 18 October 2014).

Foreign Ministry, “Øget fokus på nærområderne og den humanitære bistand.” http://um.dk/da/nyheder-fra-udenrigsministeriet/newsdisplaypage/?newsID=78F621ED-7A6B-4A89-B307-591316D6FCEE

Regeringens udviklingspolitiske prioriteter 2018, http://um.dk/da/danida/strategi%20og%20prioriteter/prioritetsplaner?sc_mode=normal (accessed 21 October 2017).

DIIS, Yearbook 2016. http://pure.diis.dk/ws/files/563878/Yearbook_2016_Web.pdf (Accessed 22 October 2016)

OECD, Development Co-operation Report 2018, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/dcr-2018-en.pdf?expires=1539180489&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=D54EE154C2B53F0125F33AFEFF51FEC2 (Accessed 10 October 2018).
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