Turkey

   

Executive Capacity

#36
Key Findings
Despite its increasingly powerful central government, Turkey falls into the bottom ranks internationally (rank 36) with regard to executive capacity. Its score on this measure has declined by 1.7 points since 2014.

Under the new highly centralized presidential model, there are 16 line ministries and nine policy councils. The Prime Minister’s Office has been abolished, and all lawmaking powers have arguably been transferred to the president. While planning bodies do exist, there is no harmony between strategic plans and governmental decisions. The president make use of an informal coordination network.

Neither RIAs nor ex post evaluations are used to any substantial degree. Draft policies and laws are not subject to public consultation. The government tends to consult only with pro-government actors. Policy outcomes have been mixed, with public revenues increasing and other objectives fulfilled, but inefficiency widespread.

Ministerial compliance is high, with President Erdoğan in control of the government and governing party. Many Turkish municipalities are in debt to the central government; as a consequence, most local projects are run by the central government. New regulations have officially transferred many municipal powers to the central state, and many elected opposition-party mayors have been replaced by trustees.

Strategic Capacity

#31

How much influence do strategic planning units and bodies have on government decision-making?

10
 9

Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions, and they exercise strong influence on government decision-making.
 8
 7
 6


Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions. Their influence on government decision-making is systematic but limited in issue scope or depth of impact.
 5
 4
 3


Strategic planning units and bodies take a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions. Occasionally, they exert some influence on government decision-making.
 2
 1

In practice, there are no units and bodies taking a long-term view of policy challenges and viable solutions.
Strategic Planning
5
Strategic management within Turkish public administration faces several challenges. Public institutions in general have insufficient strategic-management capacity. Strategic plans, performance programs, budgets and activity reports are prepared with little, if any, coordination. Although a total of 890 internal auditors are employed across 382 public institutions, the Turkish public administration as a whole has failed to develop an effective internal-audit system. There is no relationship between political strategy documents and lower-level policy materials, and little coordination between associated institutions. Difficulties in gaining access to relevant information within public administrative bodies and insufficient human resource capacities are additional major contributors to this failure. There are also no cumulative statistics on the frequency of meetings between strategic-planning staff members and government heads. In general, these meetings are held once a year and during budget negotiations. However, there is no harmony between strategic plans and governmental decisions.

During the review period, the 2016 – 2019 National e-Government Strategy and Action Plan was prepared. The plan envisages an integrated, technological, participatory, innovative and high-quality effective e-government ecosystem, and takes into account national and international considerations.

Under the new presidential system of government, the Head of Strategy and Budget is affiliated with the Presidential Office. The 2019 Annual Plan of the Presidency stated that efforts are underway to strengthen and align the budget with the policies of the high policy documents and the objectives and targets of the strategic plans in a holistic approach. The results of these attempts remain to be seen.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Kamu İdarelerince Hazırlanacak Stratejik Planlara Dair Tebliğ, Resmi Gazete, 30 April 2015, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/04/20150430-10.htm (accessed 1 November 2018)

TC Hazine ve Maliye Bakanlığı, Yeni Orta Vadeli Program, Dengeleme – Disiplin – Değişim, 2019-2021, http://www.bumko.gov.tr/Eklenti/11246,yeni-ekonomi-programipdf.pdf?0 (accessed 27 October 2018)

2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Programı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/10/20181027M1-1.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)

Sait Aşgın ve Kemal Yaman, “Türkiye’de Bakanlıkların Stratejik Plan Uygulamalarında Mevcut Yapı ve Sürecin Değerlendirilmesi,” International Journal of Academic Value Studies, 4(19), 2018: 449-466.

Does the government regularly take into account advice from non-governmental experts during decision-making?

10
 9

In almost all cases, the government transparently consults with non-governmental experts in the early stages of government decision-making.
 8
 7
 6


For major political projects, the government transparently consults with non-governmental experts in the early stages of government decision-making.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, the government transparently consults with non-governmental experts in the early stages of government decision-making.
 2
 1

The government does not consult with non-governmental experts, or existing consultations lack transparency entirely and/or are exclusively pro forma.
Expert Advice
4
In former years, the frequency of participation by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and experts in political decision-making processes were increased. In addition to working with pro-government think tanks, the government consults with academic experts in the context of projects sponsored by the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Union.

However, the spectrum of communication with outside experts is narrowing, as the government has begun to recruit its own experts to provide alternative but not critical opinions on relevant issues of public policy.

Public institutions’ annual activity reports provide no indication of how often expert opinions have been requested. Selected groups of scholars participate in the preparation of special expert reports related to the national development plans. The Turkish Academy of Sciences has been critical of the lack of scholarly cooperation with public institutions.

The new presidential system, which was fully implemented after the June 2018 elections, includes nine policy councils comprised of experts, NGO representatives and professions who are to advise the president. These councils are entitled to prepare reports on certain public issues and incorporate the opinions of the ministries, relevant public entities as well as other experts.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf

Ç. Akman, “Cumhurbaşkanlığı Hükümet Sisteminde Politika Kurulları: Sosyal Politikalar Kurulu Üzerinden Bir Değerlendirme,” February 2019, : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331702287
(accessed 1 November 2019)

Z.Sobacıet al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

Y. Üstüner and N. Yavuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.

Interministerial Coordination

#33

Does the government office / prime minister’s office (GO / PMO) have the expertise to evaluate ministerial draft bills according to the government’s priorities?

10
 9

The GO / PMO provides regular, independent evaluations of draft bills for the cabinet / prime minister. These assessments are guided exclusively by the government’s priorities.
 8
 7
 6


The GO / PMO evaluates most draft bills according to the government’s priorities.
 5
 4
 3


The GO / PMO can rely on some sectoral policy expertise but does not evaluate draft bills.
 2
 1

The GO / PMO does not have any sectoral policy expertise. Its role is limited to collecting, registering and circulating documents submitted for cabinet meetings.
GO Expertise
5
Following the April 2017 referendum and the June 2018 early elections, the governmental system was changed to a presidential model and the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) was abolished. The organization of the new presidential system was regulated by presidential decree No. 703 in July 2018. In addition to a vice-president, the head of administrative affairs was established. Its main task is to coordinate between public institutions and organizations and examine the congruity of laws adopted by the parliament and draft legislation prepared by government institutions with the constitution, current legislation, presidential decrees and government program. The head of administrative affairs includes four directorates: laws and legislation, personnel and principles, security affairs, and support and finance. The General Directorate of Laws and Legislation deals with presidential decrees, international agreements, suitability of legislation, draft regulations etc. There is no available official data about the number and functions of presidential personnel. However, according to budget data, as of the end of June, 1,108 regular employees, 479 permanent civil servants and 787 contracted personnel were employed in the presidential offices.

Presidential Decree No. 1 established nine policy councils (including the Local Governing Council, Social Policies Council, and the Health and Food Policies Council) to improve the president’s capacity for public policymaking. The councils will report to the president by taking the views of ministries, civil society and sector representatives and experts, and follow the policies and developments implemented. It will also give opinions to public institutions and organizations in their fields.

This decree also established offices of digital transformation, finance, human resources and investment with advisory capacity to the president, and endowed each with a budget while granting them administrative and financial autonomy.

Citations:
2019 Yılı Merkezi Yönetim Bütçe Kanunu İcmali (I) Sayılı Cetvel – Genel Bütçeli İdareler,
http://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/3-a1-2019-2021-D%C3%96NEM%C4%B0-GENEL-B%C3%9CT%C3%87E-EKONOM%C4%B0K.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.

“76 people appointed to Turkey’s presidential policy councils,” Hürriyet, 9 October 2018, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/76-people-appointed-to-turkeys-presidential-policy-councils-137697 (accessed 1 November 2018)

“Bin 100 odalı saraya bin 108 işçi aldılar,” Sözcü daily newspaper, 30October 2018, https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2018/ekonomi/bin-100-odali-saraya-bin-108-isci-aldilar-2709040/

To what extent do line ministries involve the government office/prime minister’s office in the preparation of policy proposals?

10
 9

There are inter-related capacities for coordination between GO/PMO and line ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The GO/PMO is regularly briefed on new developments affecting the preparation of policy proposals.
 5
 4
 3


Consultation is rather formal and focuses on technical and drafting issues.
 2
 1

Consultation occurs only after proposals are fully drafted as laws.
Line Ministries
6
Currently there are 16 line ministries and nine policy councils, which develop long-term strategic vision and report on the progress of governmental activities. The Ministry of Development, which has been the primary consultative body for preparing policies according to the government’s program, was abolished. In addition, four offices were established: finance, investment, digital transformation and human resources.

Six departments are attached to the presidency: Chief of Staff, Religious Affairs, National Security Council, Defense Industry, State Supervision Council, Communication and Strategy, and Budget Unit. These departments were established to promote efficiency and coordination in the executive.

Decree no. 698 has arguably transferred all lawmaking power to the president. In August 2019, the duties of the Ministry of Treasury and Finance were expanded “to enable the Treasury to participate in domestic and foreign companies by the decision of the president of the republic.” The decree has also precipitated a draft proposal to authorize the president to appoint the head of Boğaziçi University and members of the executive board tasked with the construction of the Istanbul canal, which is currently under the domain of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and four district municipalities.

Citations:
TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı Strateji ve Bütçe Başkanlığı, 2018 Yılı Genel Faaliyet Raporu, www.sbb.gov.tr › 2018-yili-genel-faaliyet-raporu (accessed 1 November 2019)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
KHK 703, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180709M3.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z. Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
“Bakanlar Kurulu Yetkileri KHK’yle Cumhurbaşkanına Geçti,” 4 JUly 2018, http://bianet.org/bianet/siyaset/198847-bakanlar-kurulu-yetkileri-khk-yle-cumhurbaskanina-gecti (accessed 1 November 2018)
“Boğaz’daki imar yetkisi Cumhurbaşkanlığı’na mı devrediliyor?” 30 October 2019, https://www.dw.com/tr/bo%C4%9Fazdaki-imar-yetkisi-cumhurba%C5%9Fkanl%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1na-m%C4%B1-devrediliyor/a-51053304 (accessed 1 November 2019)

How effectively do ministerial or cabinet committees coordinate cabinet proposals?

10
 9

The vast majority of cabinet proposals are reviewed and coordinated first by committees.
 8
 7
 6


Most cabinet proposals are reviewed and coordinated by committees, in particular proposals of political or strategic importance.
 5
 4
 3


There is little review or coordination of cabinet proposals by committees.
 2
 1

There is no review or coordination of cabinet proposals by committees. Or: There is no ministerial or cabinet committee.
Cabinet Committees
6
Until the PMO was abolished in July 2018, the Better Regulation Group within the PMO ensured coordination among related agencies and institutions, and improved the process of creating regulations. In addition, the government has created committees – such as the anti-terror commission under the Ministry of Interior, which includes officials from the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Justice, as well as other security departments. These are composed of ministers, experts, bureaucrats and representatives of other bureaucratic bodies (such as those on legislation techniques, legislation management and administrative simplification, and regulatory impact analysis) in highly important policy areas or when important or frequently raised issues were under consideration.

As of 1 August 2018, several coordination committees and boards, presidential policy councils and other public institutions were established in association with the presidency. During the review period, observers have publicly pointed to the need for coordination mechanisms between the ministries, parliament and the AKP.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Genelgesi 2018/3, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/08/20180802-2.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

How effectively do ministry officials/civil servants coordinate policy proposals?

10
 9

Most policy proposals are effectively coordinated by ministry officials/civil servants.
 8
 7
 6


Many policy proposals are effectively coordinated by ministry officials/civil servants.
 5
 4
 3


There is some coordination of policy proposals by ministry officials/civil servants.
 2
 1

There is no or hardly any coordination of policy proposals by ministry officials/civil servants.
Ministerial Bureaucracy
5
Following the introduction of the presidential system, Decree No. 703 abolished the offices of an undersecretary, deputy undersecretary and central governor.

The new centralized government system consists of four offices, nine councils and 16 ministries formed around the presidency. Under the new system, offices produce projects, councils transform projects into policies and the ministries implement policies. The Department of Administrative Affairs conducts monitoring and the State Supervision Council performs a control function. The new governmental system is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of interministerial coordination in particular.

Citations:
TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı Strateji ve Bütçe Başkanlığı, 2018 Yılı Genel Faaliyet Raporu, www.sbb.gov.tr › 2018-yili-genel-faaliyet-raporu (accessed 1 November 2019)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.

Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.

How effectively do informal coordination mechanisms complement formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination?

10
 9

Informal coordination mechanisms generally support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 8
 7
 6


In most cases, informal coordination mechanisms support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, informal coordination mechanisms support formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
 2
 1

Informal coordination mechanisms tend to undermine rather than complement formal mechanisms of interministerial coordination.
Informal Coordination
5
Informal bodies, which are usually made up of senior party members and their personal networks, are typically used to sketch the framework of an issue in consultation with experts, while civil servants develop proposals, and finally the upper administrative echelons finalize policy. The higher levels of the ruling party in particular, in cooperation with ministers who have considerable experience in their fields, continue to form a tight network and contribute significantly to policy preparation.


As of 1 August 2018, several coordination committees and boards, presidential policy councils and other public institutions were established in association with the presidency. During the review period, observers have publicly pointed to the need for coordination mechanisms between the ministries, parliament and the AKP. The president appears to make use of an informal coordination network but exactly how it works is not clear.

Citations:
Z.Sobacı et al.,Turkey’s New Government Model and the Presidential Organization, SETA Perspective No. 45, July 2018.
M. Turan, “Türkiye’nin Yeni Yönetim Düzeni: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Hükümet Sistemi,” Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(3), 2018: 42-91. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/524784 (accessed 1 November 2018)

How extensively and effectively are digital technologies used to support interministerial coordination (in policy development and monitoring)?

10
 9

The government uses digital technologies extensively and effectively to support interministerial coordination.
 8
 7
 6


The government uses digital technologies in most cases and somewhat effectively to support interministerial coordination.
 5
 4
 3


The government uses digital technologies to a lesser degree and with limited effects to support interministerial coordination.
 2
 1

The government makes no substantial use of digital technologies to support interministerial coordination.
Digitalization for Interministerial C.
6
The Office of Digital Transformation, which is affiliated with the Presidency, is entitled to lead public policies and strategies targeting digital transformation and e-government. It is also tasked with communicating the delivery of services, improving inter-agency cooperation and coordination in these areas, all in accordance with the goal set by the president. No information has been provided with respect to a mechanism facilitating interministerial coordination. However, the closed “kamunet” network for a more secure data exchange between public institutions and organizations has been established as part of an effort to reduce cybersecurity risks.

Turkey is a member of the e-Europe+ initiative, while the e-Transformation Turkey Project was introduced by a prime ministerial circular of December 2003. In 2004, e-government applications were introduced into public administration following the adoption of e-signatures. In 2008, a prime ministerial circular stated that the electronic document management standards and Registered Electronic Mail (KEP) projects were being implemented. Turkey developed an Information Society Strategy and Action Plan 2006 – 2010. The subsequent 2015 – 2018 Information Society Strategy and Action Plan focuses on economic growth and employment, and includes 72 actions in eight axes, including horizontal issues.

Citations:
TC Ulaştırma ve Altyapı Bakanlığı, 2015–2018 Bilgi Toplumu Stratejisi ve Eylem Planı, http://www.edevlet.gov.tr/2015/10/13/2015-2018-bilgi-toplumu-stratejisi-ve-eylem-plani/ (accessed 1 November 2018)
E. Tamtürk, “Kamu Yönetiminde Elektronik Belge Yönetim Sistemi,” Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(3), 2017: 851-862. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/325152 (1 November 2018)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

2019/12 Sayılı Bilgi Güvenliği Tedbirleri Cumhurbaşkanlığı Genelgesi, 5 July 2019, https://cbddo.gov.tr/mevzuat/2019-12-sayili-bilgi-guvenligi-tedbirleri-cumhurbaskanligi-genelgesi/ (accessed 1 November 2019)

Evidence-based Instruments

#37

To what extent does the government assess the potential impacts of existing and prepared legal acts (regulatory impact assessments, RIA)?

10
 9

RIA are applied to all new regulations and to existing regulations which are characterized by complex impact paths. RIA methodology is guided by common minimum standards.
 8
 7
 6


RIA are applied systematically to most new regulations. RIA methodology is guided by common minimum standards.
 5
 4
 3


RIA are applied in some cases. There is no common RIA methodology guaranteeing common minimum standards.
 2
 1

RIA are not applied or do not exist.
RIA Application
4
Legislation and policy formulation do not follow an inclusive and evidence-based policy development process. The legal requirement to produce medium-term cost estimates and fiscal impact assessments for draft policies and laws continues to be ignored. Regulatory impact assessments are a formal exercise, but are neither sent to parliament nor published.

The Annual Presidential Program of 2019 refers to sustainable growth and sustainable development but makes no mention of sustainable policy or policymaking, with the exception of financial sustainability.

Moreover, several chambers of industry conducted EU-funded RIA projects. The EU Regulation on the Export and Import of Harmful Chemicals Technical Support Project for Implementation was conducted by several Turkish chambers of industry, including Balıkesir, Kayseri and Kocaeli. The European Union also funded the Technical Assistance for Capacity-Building and Support to the Preparation of a Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for Decoupled Agricultural Support project.

Furthermore, the Capacity-Building and Support to the Preparation of a Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for Decoupled Agricultural Support project aimed at supporting the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in the preparation of a strategy for the alignment of national agricultural policies with the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was concluded in late 2018.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Yıllık Programı, https://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2019_Yili_Cumhurbaskanligi_Yillik_Programi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Mevzuat Hazırlama Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik, 17 February 2006, (accessed 27 October 2018)

M. Önder, “Mevzuat Yapımında Düzenleyici Etki Analizi ve Uygulama Sorunları,” Türk İdare Dergisi, 89 (485) 2017: 771-810.

F. Karcı-Sarı, Düzenleyici Etki Analizi ve Uygulama Örnekleri, Uzmanlık Tezi, Ankara, 2017.

Technical Assistance Service for IPPC – Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Turkey, Draft Regulatory Impact Assessment, 2015, https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/pops/editordosya/SIA%20Report%20-%20Final%20EN.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018).

“Agricultural policymaking within the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has been strengthened, ” 11 November 2018, https://www.avrupa.info.tr/en/pr/agricultural-policy-making-within-ministry-agriculture-and-forestry-has-been-strengthened-8960 (accessed 1 November 2019)

Does the RIA process ensure participation, transparency and quality evaluation?

10
 9

RIA analyses consistently involve stakeholders by means of consultation or collaboration, results are transparently communicated to the public and assessments are effectively evaluated by an independent body on a regular basis.
 8
 7
 6


The RIA process displays deficiencies with regard to one of the three objectives.
 5
 4
 3


The RIA process displays deficiencies with regard to two of the three objectives.
 2
 1

RIA analyses do not exist or the RIA process fails to achieve any of the three objectives of process quality.
Quality of RIA Process
2
In the past years, several chambers of industry conducted EU-funded RIA projects. The technical assistance project for the implementation of the EU Regulation Concerning the Export and Import of Hazardous Chemicals was conducted by several Turkish chambers of industry, including Balıkesir, Kayseri and Kocaeli. The European Union also funded the technical assistance project for Capacity-Building and Support to the Preparation of a Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for Decoupled Agricultural Support, which supported the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in preparing a strategy to align national agricultural policies with the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in late 2018.

During the period under review, the regulatory impact assessment (RIAs) requirement did not help improve the quality of proposed government legislation. Instead, the government simply organized more preparatory workshops and projects with EU support.

Citations:
M. Önder, “Mevzuat Yapımında Düzenleyici Etki Analizi ve Uygulama Sorunları,” Türk İdare Dergisi, 89 (485) 2017: 771-810.

F. Karcı-Sarı, Düzenleyici Etki Analizi ve Uygulama Örnekleri, Uzmanlık Tezi, Ankara, 2017.

Technical Assistance Service for IPPC – Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Turkey, Draft Regulatory Impact Assessment, 2015, https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/pops/editordosya/SIA%20Report%20-%20Final%20EN.pd f (accessed 1 November 2018).

“Agricultural policymaking within the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has been strengthened, ” 11 November 2018, https://www.avrupa.info.tr/en/pr/agricultural-policy-making-within-ministry-agri culture-and-forestry-has-been-strengthened-8960 (accessed 1 November 2019)

Does the government conduct effective sustainability checks within the framework of RIA?

10
 9

Sustainability checks are an integral part of every RIA; they draw on an exhaustive set of indicators (including social, economic, and environmental aspects of sustainability) and track impacts from the short- to long-term.
 8
 7
 6


Sustainability checks lack one of the three criteria.
 5
 4
 3


Sustainability checks lack two of the three criteria.
 2
 1

Sustainability checks do not exist or lack all three criteria.
Sustainability Check
3
The government has conducted several sustainability checks within its regulatory impact assessment (RIA) framework, for instance for the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, the Habitat Directive and the Discharge Directive.

Within the scope of U.N. Sustainable Development Goals 2030, a project to assess the current state of sustainability in Turkey was launched. However, the project has since been postponed indefinitely.

On the other hand, these examples refer to internationally sponsored projects and are not an indication of a general administrative practice. Politicians and experts widely use the term “sustainability” in policy slogans, but there is no formally adopted sustainability strategy in Turkey.

In 2016, The Coordination Board of Internal Audit published Performance Audit Guidelines for Public Sector Internal Auditors, which includes sustainability checks as a component in performance auditing. However, there is no information about RIA sustainability checks.

While making reference to sustainable growth and development, the Annual Presidential Program of 2019 does not mention sustainable policy or policymaking, with the exception of a reference to financial sustainability.

Citations:
TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Yıllık Programı, https://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2019_Yili_Cumhurbaskanligi_Yil lik_Programi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Başbakanlık, Bürokrasinin Azaltılması ve Kamu Hizmet Sunum Esaslarının Geliştirilmesi, Düzenleyici Etki Analizi Raporu, Temmuz 2009, www.pirigroup.com/RIA/doc/Burokrasinin_azaltilmasi.doc (accessed 1 November 2018)

Yavuz Gazibey, Ahmet Keser, Yunus Gökmen, Türkiye’de İllerin Sürdürülebilirlik Boyutları Açısından Değerlendirilmesi, Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 2014, 69(3): 511-544. (accessed 1 November 2018)

İç Denetim Koordinasyon Kurulu, Kamu iç Denetçileri İçin Performans Denetimi Rehberi, 2016, http://www.idkk.gov.tr/SiteDokumanlari/Mevzuat/Ucuncul%20Duzey%20Mevzuat/PerformansDenetimiRehberi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

To what extent do government ministries regularly evaluate the effectiveness and/or efficiency of public policies and use results of evaluations for the revision of existing policies or development of new policies?

10
 9

Ex post evaluations are carried out for all significant policies and are generally used for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
 8
 7
 6


Ex post evaluations are carried out for most significant policies and are used for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
 5
 4
 3


Ex post evaluations are rarely carried out for significant policies and are rarely used for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
 2
 1

Ex post evaluations are generally not carried out and do not play any relevant role for the revision of existing policies or the development of new policies.
Quality of Ex Post Evaluation
2
Currently, the capacity of public policy assessment institutions in Turkey lack knowledge regarding evidence-based instruments, both theoretically and practically. RIA practice was introduced by Law No. 5018 on Public Financial Management and Control (2003), and other relevant regulations. In this context, a cost-benefit analysis is required for all public agencies. However, there are various social and political barriers to the evaluation of public policies. For example, the parliament and judiciary cannot effectively supervise and review executive actions. It is unlikely that an effective evaluation mechanism will be developed in the near future. However, there are a few academic studies that have evaluated certain public policies.

The Annual Presidential Program of 2019 makes references to monitoring and assessment but not to the systematic ex post evaluation of public policies. There are a few ex post analyses of public policies, mainly in the health sector, that address citizen/patient satisfaction, self-assessment and the assessment of action plans.

Citations:
TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Yıllık Programı, https://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2019_Yili_Cumhurbaskanligi_Yil lik_Programi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TC Sağlık Bakanlığı Faaliyet Raporları, https://sgb.saglik.gov.tr/dokumanlar/faaliyet-raporlari (accessed 1 November 2019)

Aydın Usta, “Yeni Kamu Yönetiminde Politikaların Değerlendirilmesi: Tipolojiler, Boyutlar ve Ölçütler, ” Sayıştay Dergiṡi̇, 94/Temmuz-Eylül 2014, 5-27.

İbrahim Arap and Veysel Erat, “Bir Kamu Politikasının Analizi: Türkiye’de Geçici Köy Koruculuğu,” Mülkiye Dergisi, 39 (4), 2015: 73-108.

Societal Consultation

#37

Does the government consult with societal actors in a fair and pluralistic manner?

10
 9

The government always consults with societal actors in a fair and pluralistic manner.
 8
 7
 6


The government in most cases consults with societal actors in a fair and pluralistic manner.
 5
 4
 3


The government does consult with societal actors, but mostly in an unfair and clientelistic manner.
 2
 1

The government rarely consults with any societal actors.
Public Consultation
3
The Presidency’s 2019 Annual Program stresses that civil society organizations are crucial to policymaking and the implementation process. It also notes, however, that social platforms, civil initiatives, and similar networks should also be taken into account. Opponents argue that the president seeks to include religious groups and organizations as active stakeholders in governmental processes.

Turkey’s national development plans emphasize the importance of cooperation between NGOs and the public sector. The EU-funded public-civil society dialogue projects promote the participation of civil society in public decision-making. The relationship between government and society, and parliament and society are not based on a systematic and structured consultation mechanism. Due to increasing political polarization during the review period, the government has increased restrictions on public access to policymaking processes and tended to consult only with pro-government actors.

Some civil society organizations (e.g., TÜSİAD) established the delegation on the Relations with the Parliament and Public Institutions, and organized several meetings with the governmental representatives.

In general, governmental authorities consider this requirement to have a “slowing” effect on policymaking (e.g., on progressive projects such as urban renewal or the planning of hydroelectric power plants). Draft policies and laws are not subject to public consultation, despite legal requirements.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı 2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Yıllık Programı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/10/20181027M1-1.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)

Yakup Bulut et al., “Kamu Politikalarının Oluşturulmasında Sivil Toplum Kuruluşlarının Etkisi,” Strategic
Public Management Journal, 3(6), 2017: 23-38.

“Kamu – Sivil Toplum İşbirliği,” https://www.avrupa.info.tr/tr/kamu-sivil-toplum-isbirligi-37 (accessed 1 November 2017)

TÜSİAD, 2017 Çalışma Raporu, https://tusiad.org/tr/faaliyet-raporlari/item/download/8866_437 acba2ff81e038a8074a20a1bc09a2 (accessed 27 October 2018)

Policy Communication

#31

To what extent does the government achieve coherent communication?

10
 9

Ministries are highly successful in aligning their communication with government strategy.
 8
 7
 6


Ministries most of the time are highly successful in aligning their communication with government strategy.
 5
 4
 3


Ministries occasionally issue public statements that contradict the public communication of other ministries or the government strategy.
 2
 1

Strategic communication planning does not exist; individual ministry statements regularly contradict each other. Messages are often not factually consistent with the government’s strategy.
Coherent Communication
4
The extensive restructuring of the executive branch has allowed for further centralization in policymaking through the president. Policy coordination among central government institutions has remained strong, but planning, monitoring and reporting on whole-of-government performance remains inadequate. Rules of procedure are lacking in administrative decision-making processes, which undermines the parliamentary lawmaking process. Legislative development and policy formulation have not pursued an inclusive and evidence-based approach, but the responsibility for producing draft legislative proposals now lies with members of parliament, rather than with the government. The president has issued over one thousand executive decisions and 50 decrees, some on limited, others on extensive issues. Exactly how nine recently established presidential policy councils relate to the work of individual government departments is not clear.

Some ministers have expressed doubts over President Erdoğan’s plan to resettle Syrian asylum-seekers in a safe zone 30 km into northern Syria and to extend the Iraqi border. The president has claimed that municipal hospital projects are realized through a build-operate-transfer model that does not involve public funding. However, the Minister of Health has stated that the construction of these hospitals can be funded by public money and are not necessarily dependent on public-private partnerships.

Although the Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜIK), declared the number of unemployed to have reached 4,650,000 in August 2019, Turkey’s employment agency, İŞKUR, registered 4,044,640.

The full introduction of the presidential system also increased the multitude of “decisive voices” emanating from within the government, including that of the president, the ministers (on particular policies), their spokesmen and chief consultants, as well as the spokesmen from the ruling party (which holds the parliamentary majority with another party whose party leader acts partly as a consent giver or an opposition to the president/ ruling party-chairman). On foreign and security policies and in particular Turkey’s military interventions abroad, the voice of the minister of defense (and former chief of staff) is taken into account.

Finally, the president’s push for policies that undermine international (EU) standards and ignore scientific common sense (e.g., his position on a non-independent central bank or currency policy), and the way in which public opinion is manipulated by the centralized party-government-system and pro-government media, as well as the government’s nationalist discourse renders communication and deliberation in its liberal understanding ineffective and unsustainable.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, İkinci 100 Günlük İcraat Programı’nı açıkladı,” 13 December 2018, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/100089/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-ikinci-100-gunluk-icraat-programi-ni-acikladi (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Kılıçdaroğlu’ndan Erdoğan’a ‘icraat programı’ sorusu: 100 gün doldu, ne oldu?” https://www.demokrathaber.org/siyaset/kilicdaroglu-ndan-Erdoğan-a-icraat-programi-h109731.html (accessed 13 November 2018)

Bursa Şehir Hastanesi ve İstanbul-İzmir Otoyolu Ortak Açılış Töreni,” Yeni Haber, 4 August 2019, http://www.yenihaberden.com/bursa-sehir-hastanesi-ve-istanbul-izmir-otoyolu-ortak-acilis-toreni-1108180h.htm (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Sağlık Bakanı Koca: 17 bin 689 atama ile ilgili hazırlıklarımızı yaptık” Anadolu Agnecy, 14 November 2019, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/saglik/saglik-bakani-koca-17-bin-689-atama-ile-ilgili-hazirliklarimizi-yaptik/1645630 (accessed 14 November 2019)

“Kabinede “güvenli bölge” çatlağı!” Yeniçağ daily newspaper, 20 October 2019, https://www.yenicaggazetesi.com.tr/kabinede-guvenli-bolge-catlagi-253100h.htm (accessed 1 November 2019)

TÜİK İşgücü İstatiskleri Ağustos 2019, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1007 (accessed 1 November 2019)

İşkur 2019 Ağustos Ayı Bülteni, https://media.iskur.gov.tr/32190/08-agustos-2019-aylik-istatistik-bulteni.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

L. Gönenç, “Hükümet Sistemi Tartışmaları – 2: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Hükümet Sistemi’nin Bir Yıllık Performansı,” 8/2019, https://www.tepav.org.tr/upload/mce/2019/notlar/hukumet_sistemi_tartismalari_2_cumhurbaskanligi_hukumet_sisteminin_bir_yillik_performansi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Implementation

#29

To what extent can the government achieve its own policy objectives?

10
 9

The government can largely implement its own policy objectives.
 8
 7
 6


The government is partly successful in implementing its policy objectives or can implement some of its policy objectives.
 5
 4
 3


The government partly fails to implement its objectives or fails to implement several policy objectives.
 2
 1

The government largely fails to implement its policy objectives.
Government Effectiveness
6
Governmental inefficiency is widespread, especially in relation to the economy. The first nine months following the implementation of the government’s annual economic objectives varied sharply from official budget and 2017 – 2019 medium-term fiscal plan forecasts. The recent devaluation of the Turkish lira has increased the fiscal burden on macroeconomic variables. In the current and the next (2018 – 2020) medium-term fiscal plan, greater fiscal discipline is expected. Unemployment, inflation and the budget deficit will continue to be major economic weaknesses, which will be exacerbated by population growth, refugee issues and security concerns.

As of August 2019, public revenues had increased, but expenditures were increasing more rapidly. In addition, currency transfers expanded by 57.7% from the previous year, as did capital expenditures (82.4%) and capital transfers (286.3%). Equally surprising is the increase in purchase of goods and services (27.2%) that took place following the local elections.

Results were similarly mixed in other sectors. For instance, the Ministry of Education realized most of its 17 performance objectives, but failed to make progress in terms of improved equipment, the completion of projects, innovation and improved student and educator mobility. Whereas the Ministry of Health completed most of its 54 objectives/actions launched in 2018, it failed to increase equipment capacity and conduct assessment/ satisfaction analyses.

The government’s long-standing investment strategy, which is based on the build-operate-transfer model and includes urban hospitals, bridges, connecting highways and airports, effectively created a budgetary black hole as these project are assured guaranteed revenues by the treasury.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

World Justice Project, Rule of Law Index 2019, https://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/documents/ROLI-2019-Reduced. pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Sağlık Bakanlığı 2018 Faaliyet Raporu, https://sgb.saglik.gov.tr/Dkmanlar/TC%20Sa%C4%9Fl%C4%B1k%20Bakanl%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1%20Faaliyet%20Raporu%202018.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, 2018 Faaliyet Raporu, https://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2019_03/01175437_MillY_EYitim_BakanlYY_2018_YYlY_Ydare_Faaliyet_Raporu_YayYn2.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

G. Atabay, “Analiz: Ocak-Temmuz bütçesindeki korkunç performans ne anlatıyor?” 15 August 2019, https://www.paraanaliz.com/2019/yazarlar/guldem-atabay-sanli/analiz-ocak-temmuz-butcesindeki-korkunc-performans-ne-anlatiyor-37346/ (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Bütçe açığı belli oldu! İlk 10 ayda 100.7 milyar TL,” 15 November 2019, https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2019/ekonomi/butce-acigi-belli-oldu-5452858/ (accessed 15 November 2019)

“14 milyar liralık keyfi harcama kalemi,”22 October 2019, https://www.birgun.net/haber/14-milyar-liralik-keyfi-harcama-kalemi-273369 (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Yap-işlet-devret yatırım mı karadelik mi?” 13 April 2019, http://www.yenimesaj.com.tr/yap-islet-devret-yatirim-mi-karadelik-mi-H1315869.htm (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Sayıştay, son 17 yılda toplam 10 milyar kamu zararı tespit etti,” 19 April 2019, https://t24.com.tr/haber/sayistay-son-17-yilda-toplam-10-milyar-kamu-zarari-tespit-etti,812927 (accessed 1 November 2019)

To what extent does the organization of government provide mechanisms to ensure that ministers implement the government’s program?

10
 9

The organization of government successfully provides strong mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 8
 7
 6


The organization of government provides some mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 5
 4
 3


The organization of government provides weak mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
 2
 1

The organization of government does not provide any mechanisms for ministers to implement the government’s program.
Ministerial Compliance
7
Turkey’s single-party government, which features strong party leadership and high demand for ministerial positions among party members, provides strong incentives to promote the government program. It is therefore difficult for even ministers with expertise in the areas they are responsible for to speak independently. The party leader’s charisma and standing, combined with the tendency within parties to leave personnel decisions to the party leader, prevent ministers from pursuing their own interests during their time in office.

Maintaining his grip on the government while stressing his intent to be an active leader, President Erdoğan interferes in almost every policy field and ministerial portfolio. Following the constitutional referendum of April 2017, Erdoğan was immediately re-elected chair of the AKP, which legalized a previously de facto status and undermines the principle of impartiality with respect to the Turkish head of state. In addition, Erdoğan immediately exercised constitutional powers that were not supposed to take effect until after the 2019 presidential elections.

Erdoğan has also actively intervened in the nomination of deputies, municipal mayors, the appointment of senior civil servants and the organization of electoral campaigns. In other words, the office of the president, now entrusted with increasing powers, has replaced the offices otherwise established by the constitution. The current constellation thus raises the question whether the effectiveness of the executive in general and the government in particular will be diminished by the existence of several centers of power, and suggests that the democratic separation of powers as a whole is eroding.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

“Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, İkinci 100 Günlük İcraat Programı’nı açıkladı,” 13 December 2018, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/100089/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-ikinci-100-gun luk-icraat-programi-ni-acikladi (accessed 1 November 2019)

How effectively does the government office/prime minister’s office monitor line ministry activities with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The GO / PMO effectively monitors the implementation activities of all line ministries.
 8
 7
 6


The GO / PMO monitors the implementation activities of most line ministries.
 5
 4
 3


The GO / PMO monitors the implementation activities of some line ministries.
 2
 1

The GO / PMO does not monitor the implementation activities of line ministries.
Monitoring Ministries
7
The new government, established with the implementation of the presidential system in June 2018, consists of four offices, nine policy councils and 16 ministries formed around the presidency. Under the new system, offices produce projects, councils transform projects into policies and the ministries implement policies. Besides, the Office of the Commander in Chief, Intelligence Department, Department of Defense Industry, National Security Council, Directorate of Religious Affairs, State Supervision Council and Communication Department are affiliated with the Presidency. The Department of Administrative Affairs conducts monitoring and the State Supervision Council performs a control function. The new governmental system is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of interministerial coordination.

As of April 2018, there are 2,713,625 public employees; 19,838 are workers, 121,110 are contracted personnel in the ministries, their affiliated, related and associated entities. However, according to budget data, as of the end of June 2019, 479 permanent civil servants, 787 contracted personnel and 1.108 workers were employed in the Presidential Offices.

The Presidency’s 2019 Annual Program initiates several monitoring objectives ranging from health, education, judiciary, development, domestic violence and family life. It is stressed that monitoring will be done by effective mechanisms in collaboration with the relevant public entities such as ministries and assessed regularly.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

“Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, İkinci 100 Günlük İcraat Programı’nı açıkladı,” 13 December 2018, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/100089/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-ikinci-100-gun luk-icraat-programi-ni-acikladi (accessed 1 November 2019)

2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Programı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/10/20181027M1-1.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)

2019 Yılı Merkezi Yönetim Bütçe Kanunu İcmali (I) Sayılı Cetvel – Genel Bütçeli İdareler,
http://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/3-a1-2019-2021-D%C3%96NEM%C4% B0-GENEL-B%C3%9CT%C3%87E-EKONOM%C4%B0K.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

“2018 Yılı Kamu Personeli Sayısı – Memur, İşçi, Sözleşmeli Personel Sayısı Kaynak: 2018 Yılı Kamu Personeli Sayısı – Memur, İşçi, Sözleşmeli Personel Sayısı,” 2 July 2018, https://www.mymemur.com.tr/2018-yili-kamu-personeli-sayisi-memur-isci-sozlesmeli-personel-sayisi-100052h.htm (accessed 1 November 2019)

How effectively do federal and subnational ministries monitor the activities of bureaucracies/executive agencies with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The ministries effectively monitor the implementation activities of all bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 8
 7
 6


The ministries monitor the implementation activities of most bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 5
 4
 3


The ministries monitor the implementation activities of some bureaucracies/executive agencies.
 2
 1

The ministries do not monitor the implementation activities of bureaucracies/executive agencies.
Monitoring Agencies|Bureaucracies
7
Turkey is a unitary state divided into 81 provinces (Article 126 of the constitution). Power is devolved in such a way as to ensure the efficiency and coordination of public services from the center. Ministerial agencies are monitored regularly. The central administration by law holds the power to guide the activities of local administration, to ensure that local services are delivered in conformance with the guidelines set down by the central government, as well as ensuring services are uniform, meeting local needs and in the interest of the local population (Article 127). The central government has provincial organizations that differ in size and capacity and are regularly scrutinized by the central government. Independent administrative authorities such as the Telecommunications Authority and Energy Market Regulatory Authority are not monitored but are subject to judicial review.

The new presidential government consists of offices, councils and ministries formed around the presidency. Under the new system, offices produce projects, councils transform projects into policies and ministries implement policies. The Department of Administrative Affairs conducts monitoring and the State Supervision Council performs a control function. The new governmental system is an attempt to promote efficiency and coordination in governmental processes, especially in decision-making and implementation. However, the centralization and unification of decision-making in the hands of the president raises doubts about the sustainability of interministerial coordination.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 27 October 2018)

2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Programı, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/10/20181027M1-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

İç Denetim Koordinasyon Kurulu 2017 Yılı Kamu İç Denetim Genel Raporu, Aralık 2018, https://ms.hmb.gov.tr/uploads/2019/09/2017KamuicDenetimGenelRaporu.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

To what extent does the central government ensure that tasks delegated to subnational self-governments are adequately funded?

10
 9

The central government enables subnational self-governments to fulfill all their delegated tasks by funding these tasks sufficiently and/or by providing adequate revenue-raising powers.
 8
 7
 6


The central government enables subnational governments to fulfill most of their delegated tasks by funding these tasks sufficiently and/or by providing adequate revenue-raising powers.
 5
 4
 3


The central government sometimes and deliberately shifts unfunded mandates to subnational governments.
 2
 1

The central government often and deliberately shifts unfunded mandates to subnational self-governments.
Task Funding
6
Since 2009, transfers from the central government to municipalities via the Bank of Provinces have taken into consideration the number of inhabitants and the locality’s relative position on development indices. However, the new model has not eased the difficult financial situation of Turkey’s municipalities, which are seriously indebted to central-government institutions. According to Turkish Court of Accounts’ reports, most metropolitan municipalities have substantial debts. Therefore, most local projects in major metropolitan municipalities are run by the central government. Financial decentralization and reform of local administration have been major issues during the review period. The central administration (mainly through the Bank of Provinces) is still the major funding source for local governments through regional development projects (e.g., GAP, DAP and DOKAP). The central government is continuing transfers to the village infrastructure project (KÖYDES), the Drinking Water and Sewer Infrastructure Program (SUKAP) and the Social Support Program (SODES).

The recent change in regulations governing metropolitan municipalities was designed to generate funds for municipal governments. While existing competencies will continue in general, it may be necessary to expand local government powers, diversify local needs, broaden service requirements, and promote public interest in such services in order to ensure their effective and efficient delivery. However, the new presidential system, which is based on the centralization and unification of decision-making, leaves no room for decentralization.

According to the Law No. 5393 on Municipalities (Article 37), mayors make appointments in municipal companies. Shortly after the local elections on 20 May 2019, the Ministry of Trade granted this authority to the municipal councils. Moreover, the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization prepared a draft law that will terminate the powers of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (İBB) and the four district municipalities regarding the Istanbul canal project. Additionally, the new Bosphorus Directorate and the two boards (Boards of Protection of Bosphorus Cultural and Natural Heritage) will have a say about the Istanbul canal project and the members of the board will appoint the president, all of which clearly limit the principle of subnational self-government. Claiming that some mayors maintain links to the opposition HDP or support terrorist organizations, the government has since 2014 begun replacing elected with “trustee” mayors.

Citations:
2019 Yılı Yatırım Programı, http://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/2019-Y%C4%B1l%C4%B1-Yat%C4%B1r%C4%B1m-Program%C4%B1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Yerel yönetimlere yeni yılda 114.3 milyar lira kaynak,” 28 October 2018, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/ekonomi/yerel-yonetimlere-yeni-yilda-1143-milyar-lira-kaynak-391377.html (accessed 1 November 2018)

“Sayıştay Raporlarında Dikkat Çeken Usulsüzlükler,” 6 November 2018, https://m.bianet.org/bianet/siyaset/202382-sayistay-raporlarinda-dikkat-ceken-usulsuzlukler (accessed 1 November 2019)

“İmamoğlu ve Yavaş’a yetki darbesi,” Cumhuriyet daily newspaper, 25 June 2019, http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turkiye/1456784/imamoglu-ve-yavasa-yetki-darbesi.html (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Boğaz’daki imar yetkisi Cumhurbaşkanlığı’na mı devrediliyor?” 30 October 2019, https://www.dw.com/tr/bo%C4%9Fazdaki-imar-yetkisi-cumhurba%C5%9Fkanl%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1na-m%C4%B1-devrediliyor/a-51053304 (accessed 1 November 2019)

O. Değer and I. Kurnaz, “Yerel Kamunun Gaspla İdaresi: Hükümet Gücünün Serbest Bırakılması Olarak Kayyım Darbesi,” 15 October 2019, http://ayrintidergi.com.tr/yerel-kamunun-gaspla-idaresi-hukumet-gucunun-serbest-birakilmasi-olarak-kayyim-darbesi/ (accessed 1 November 2019)

To what extent does central government ensure that subnational self-governments may use their constitutional scope of discretion with regard to implementation?

10
 9

The central government enables subnational self-governments to make full use of their constitutional scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 8
 7
 6


Central government policies inadvertently limit the subnational self-governments’ scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 5
 4
 3


The central government formally respects the constitutional autonomy of subnational self-governments, but de facto narrows their scope of discretion with regard to implementation.
 2
 1

The central government deliberately precludes subnational self-governments from making use of their constitutionally provided implementation autonomy.
Constitutional Discretion
1
Since 2014, the Turkish metropolitan municipalities have been subject to significant changes with respect to the delivery of administrative, financial, political and public services. These changes run contrary to the European Charter of Local Self-Government and severely undermine the principle of subsidiarity. In addition, the Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKI) now holds all the power to act in efforts to prevent shanty housing in new areas assigned to a municipality. Furthermore, a June 2019 amendment to the Urban Transformation Regulation enabled the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization to consolidate the application of urban areas which results in a limitation of municipalities’ ability to exercise their powers.

Shortly after the June 2014 parliamentary elections, two towns and 15 provinces in the southeast of Turkey and two neighborhoods in Istanbul declared self-government. The central government took a strong stand against these declarations, and judicial investigations were initiated against mayors and other people in charge. Moreover, in the wake of the averted coup attempt in 2016 and the government’s state of emergency, a total of 95 out of 102 HDP democratically elected mayors from HDP replaced with pro-government appointees by the central government.
Following the 31 March 2019 local elections, 24 out of 69 mayors from the opposition HDP were also replaced by so-called trustees.

While existing competencies will in general remain, ensuring effective and efficient delivery of public services will require an expansion of local government powers, a diversification of local needs and a strengthening of public interest. However, Turkey’s new presidential system, which is based on the centralization and unification of decision-making, does not allow for decentralization.

Citations:
Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)
K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.

K. Öztürk, “Yerel Yönetim Reformunda Yerelleşme– Merkezileşme Dikotomisi: 6360 Sayılı Yasa Örneği,” Hukuk Ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi, 11(2): 133-48.

“Yerel yönetimlere düzenleme: İller ‘Bütünşehir’ sayılacak, belediye başkanlarının yetkisi artacak,” https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/201807181034332985-yerel-yonetimler-butunsehir-belediye-baskanlari-yetki/ (accessed 1 November 2018)

“Yeni dönemde 15, öncekinde 95 belediyeye kayyum atandı,” Independent Tükçe, 4 November 2019, https://www.independentturkish.com/node/88241/haber/yeni-d%C3%B6nemde-15-%C3%B6ncekinde-95-belediyeye-kayyum-atand%C4%B1 (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Belediyelere AKP kıskacı,” Birgün dailynewspaper, 25 June 2019, https://www.birgun.net/haber/belediyelere-akp-kiskaci-259792 (accessed 1 November 2019)

To what extent does central government ensure that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services?

10
 9

Central government effectively ensures that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
 8
 7
 6


Central government largely ensures that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
 5
 4
 3


Central government ensures that subnational self-governments realize national minimum standards of public services.
 2
 1

Central government does not ensure that subnational self-governments realize national standards of public services.
National Standards
5
Local government, mainly elected municipalities, are subject to several supervision mechanisms such as internal and external audits, mayoral supervision, the control of local councils, and a central government audit. The Ministry of Interior Affairs closely monitors the structure and quality of services provided by municipal governments through its own local agencies and administrative trusteeship which conduct internal and external audits, and audits by civil service inspectors. The Turkish Court of Accounts (TCA) reviews the accounts of municipalities on behalf of parliament. It conducts performance audits of municipalities effectively. The Ministry of the Interior has the power to send civil inspectors and local government controllers to individual municipalities, and has, until recently done so to exercise political pressure on mayors with ties to the opposition.

While United Nations Development Program (UNDP) support for the implementation of local-administration reform in Turkey (LAR Phase 2) has been concluded, Turkey still aims to fulfill some requirements of the European Local Self-Government Charter. In this context, municipalities work to establish departments tasked with monitoring, investment and coordination. The main duties of these departments are to provide, monitor and coordinate public institutions and organizations’ investments and services; to provide and coordinate central-administration investments in the provinces; and to guide and inspect provincial public institutions and organizations. However, the most significant outstanding issues with regard to standardizing local public services are essentially financial, technical and personnel-driven. Within the OECD, Turkey remains the country with the largest regional disparities. The Union of Municipalities of Turkey also offers municipalities nationally or EU-funded training and technical support for public service-related issues.

Citations:
Kamu Hizmetlerinin Sunumunda Uyulacak Usul ve Esaslara İlişkin Yönetmelik, Official Gazette, 31 July 2009, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/main.aspx?home=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2009/07/20090731.htm&main=http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2009/07/20090731.htm (accessed 1 November 2018)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

“Oversight on Municipalities,” http://www.tbb.gov.tr/en/local-authorities/oversight-on-municipalities/ (accessed 1 November 2019)

To what extent is government enforcing regulations in an effective and unbiased way, also against vested interests?

10
 9

Government agencies enforce regulations effectively and without bias.
 8
 7
 6


Government agencies, for the most part, enforce regulations effectively and without bias.
 5
 4
 3


Government agencies enforce regulations, but ineffectively and with bias.
 2
 1

Government agencies enforce regulations ineffectively, inconsistently and with bias.
Regulatory Enforcement
4
A state of emergency was declared by the government after the averted coup attempt of 2016, which lasted until shortly after the June 2018 elections. Under the state of emergency, the government used all its capacities and competences to impose its rule over many areas of public policymaking (e.g., security, justice, economy, media and civil society) by tightening its control over human resources and legal practices, as well as by restricting human and civil rights. The World Justice Project’s Rule of Law Index 2019 ranked Turkey 106th out of 126 countries, with a score of 0.42 for regulatory enforcement. Turkey’s score on effective regulatory enforcement (0.41) lies the global/regional average. Delay in enforcement without an acceptable reason is on par with the global/regional average (0.47), while improper influence is high (0.63) and respect for due process is very low (0.14), particularly with respect to the global/regional average.

In the first half of 2019, TRL14.6 billion of public tenders were tendered by calling specific persons/companies (mainly partisan companies) or through a direct supply procedure. In the January-June period, a tender of TRL 50.7 million was made for hospitality activities.

In other words, during the review period, the AKP and the president followed a biased and polarizing strategy in government that undermined sustainable, democratic public policymaking and implementation. The governing party also accepted that the new system has some failures in practice.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

World Justice Project, Rule of Law Index 2019, https://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/documents/ROLI-2019-Reduced. pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Yeni sisteme ‘uyum’ paketi: Sorunun % 80’i uygulama kaynaklı,” Hürriyet dailynewspaper, 5 September 2019, http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/yeni-sisteme-uyum-paketi-sorunun-80i-uygulama-kaynakli-41321763 (accessed 1 November 2019)

“14.6 milyarlık ihale yine yandaşa,” Birgün dailynewspaper, 7 September 2019, https://www.birgun.net/haber/14-6-milyarlik-ihale-yine-yandasa-267643 (accessed 1 November 2019)

Adaptability

#40

To what extent does the government respond to international and supranational developments by adapting domestic government structures?

10
 9

The government has appropriately and effectively adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 8
 7
 6


In many cases, the government has adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 5
 4
 3


In some cases, the government has adapted domestic government structures to international and supranational developments.
 2
 1

The government has not adapted domestic government structures, no matter how beneficial adaptation might be.
Domestic Adaptability
3
Instead of following international recommendations and complying with global currency market conditions during the latest economic and lira crisis in 2018, the government refused to consult with the IMF to counter the currency crisis effectively. It acted on its own and in collision with previously independent regulatory boards, which a commentator assessed as being “afraid to take necessary steps without instructions from above,” that is, the presidency. Given examples are the Treasury and Finance Ministry which had barred banks from calling in loans to companies under duress due to exchange rates, thereby bypassing the country’s banking watchdog, the BDDK, altogether. The banks panicked, leading to further drops in the value of the lira. Three hours later the ministry announced it was merely a suggestion rather than a policy change. Another example is the Capital Markets Board (SPK), a regulatory and supervisory authority in charge of the securities markets in Turkey whose announcement that insider trading would not be punished was overturned by decree. According to the commentator, “the confusion and disorganization in economic management, the lack of coordination between agencies, the miscalculated regulations have exposed the political influence over independent regulatory institutions, and elevated worries of a possible institutional collapse.”
On another topic, the state authorities are in ongoing operational consultation with UN and EU bodies to handle the refugee crisis. Institutional and procedural reforms, regulations and project set ups are continuously undertaken in accordance with international norms. However, Turkey’s military intervention in Syria and northern Iraq are largely considered to undermine regional security and the country’s own efforts to restabilize the region and promote the resettlement of refugees. Moreover, Turkey has not responded to EU demands to revise anti-terror legislation or visa policies as part of the EU refugee agreement, nor does it meet various Copenhagen standards in certain policy fields that are required for EU accession. Finally, despite its regular consultation with European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), Turkey still ranks second after Russia in failing to execute ECHR rulings.

Turkey still has not ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and has not established a National Coordination Council that would be necessary to integrate environmental policies into its domestic agenda and reach policy coherence. It has set extremely limited carbon reduction targets, pledging only a 21% decrease in projected levels by 2030 (as compared with 1990 levels), which is significantly lower than the 40% sufficiency threshold discussed at the COP21 conference in Paris.

Citations:
Council of Europe Committee of Ministers, Supervision of the execution of judgments and decisions of the European Court of Human Rights 2019, 13th Annual Report of the Committee of Ministers, Strasbourg.
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Yıllık Programı, https://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2019_Yili_Cumhurbaskanligi_Yil lik_Programi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Zülfikar Doğan, Z. (2018) Political control of oversight bodies erodes trust in Turkey’s economy, 21 August 2018, https://ahval.me/turkey-economy/political-control-oversight-bodies-erodes-trust-turkeys-economy?amp

To what extent is the government able to collaborate effectively with international efforts to foster global public goods?

10
 9

The government can take a leading role in shaping and implementing collective efforts to provide global public goods. It is able to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress.
 8
 7
 6


The government is largely able to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. Existing processes enabling the government to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress are, for the most part, effective.
 5
 4
 3


The government is partially able to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. Processes designed to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress show deficiencies.
 2
 1

The government does not have sufficient institutional capacities to shape and implement collective efforts to provide global public goods. It does not have effective processes to ensure coherence in national policies affecting progress.
International Coordination
4
Despite the many controversial steps Turkey has taken in foreign and security policy, Turkish state authorities play an active role in numerous fields and levels of international affairs (e.g., the United Nations, G-20, OSCE, NATO, the Council of Europe, EU, the Regional Cooperation Council in the Balkans, the OIC in the Islamic world, the Turkic Council in Central Asia and MIKTA). Yet, apart from its G-20 presidency in 2015 or the international summits it hosts (where the government has been able to actively promote global common goods), Turkey usually takes and is increasingly taking a more assertive approach that is clearly driven by its national interests. As a result, the country has increasingly confronted partners (NATO) and undermined joint undertakings and common interests in EU-Turkey relations (e.g., regarding stability in the Eastern Mediterranean).
Turkey continues to cooperate with 22 EU member states, having signed 47 cooperation agreements involving information-sharing and joint operations in the fight against terrorism and crime. Overall, Turkey has 172 security cooperation agreements with 103 countries. Its counterterrorism dialogue with the EU continued throughout the period under review and is among the key areas of joint interest. Since, 2014, Turkey has cooperated with EU member states on detecting foreign terrorist fighters (FTF) looking to cross Turkey to reach – or return from – Syria or Iraq and acted assertively when sending FTFs back to their countries of origin. At the same time, state authorities at times instrumentalize the refugee issue to push national interests against Greece and EU states instead of seeking joint understanding and sustainable solutions.

The Ministry of National Defense takes part in joint peacekeeping and humanitarian operations in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Qatar. Some 17,470 military personnel from a total of 100 countries have participated in the courses provided by the Turkish Armed Forces at the Partnership for Peace Training Center (BİOEM). However, citing the need to fight terrorism, Turkey defied international calls not to enter into Syria in 2019. And its search for gas reserves in the Eastern Mediterranean, which is carried out with the protection of military ships, is viewed by the EU as a destabilizing move within a fragile region.

The Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TİKA) has offered projects in education, health, infrastructure, energy, communication and human resources development since 1991 in the Middle East and Africa, the Balkans and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus, East Asia, South Asia, the Pacific and Latin America. In 2018 alone, TİKA spent about TRY 350 million (€55 million) on various projects abroad. Similarly, the Directorate for Religious Affairs has been active in religious affairs, education and social affairs in other countries, promoting interreligious dialogue. Both agencies are involved in protecting cultural heritage and promoting intercultural understanding. However, some have criticized Turkey for a lack of transparency regarding its objectives and for prioritizing Muslim or Turkish nationals’ interests.

Turkey has yet to ratify the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. On the other hand, it will host in 2021 COP22, an international convention on the protection of the Mediterranean marine environment and coastline.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 2019 Yılı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Yıllık Programı, https://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2019_Yili_Cumhurbaskanligi_Yil lik_Programi.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TC Milli Savunma Bakanlığı Faaliyet Raporu 2018, https://www.msb.gov.tr/Content/Upload/Docs/maliye/MSB%202018%20Y%C4%B1l%C4%B1%20Faaliyet%20Raporu.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

TİKA Annual Report 2018, https://www.tika.gov.tr/upload/2019/Faaliyet%20Raporu%202018/TikaFaaliyetWeb.pdf
(accessed 1 November 2019)

Organizational Reform

#27

To what extent do actors within the government monitor whether institutional arrangements of governing are appropriate?

10
 9

The institutional arrangements of governing are monitored regularly and effectively.
 8
 7
 6


The institutional arrangements of governing are monitored regularly.
 5
 4
 3


The institutional arrangements of governing are selectively and sporadically monitored.
 2
 1

There is no monitoring.
Self-monitoring
5
With the April 2017 referendum and the subsequent incremental introduction of the presidential system of government, Turkey has undergone an organizational change involving the creation of new institutions, the merging or splitting of ministerial bodies, legal changes and rapid personnel shifts. These developments make monitoring exceedingly difficult.

The organization of the new presidential system was regulated by presidential Decree No. 703 in July 2018. In addition to a vice-president, the head of administrative affairs was established under the General Directorate of Law and Legislation. Its main task as the head of administrative affairs is to coordinate between public institutions and organizations, and examine the congruity of laws adopted by the parliament and draft legislation prepared by government institutions with the constitution, current legislation, presidential decrees and government program. The policy councils of the president are expected to monitor and report the implementation of governmental policies to the president.

Several units contribute to the monitoring process directly or indirectly. These units include the State Supervisory Council, the Directorate General of Law and Legislation of the Presidency of the Republic, the Directorate General of Laws and Decrees of the TBMM, the General Directorate of Laws of the Ministry of Justice, and the Council of State. Each administrative institution has its own internal control unit for monitoring compliance with financial rules. However, these units are not fully effective.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

K. Gözler, Türkiye’nin Yönetim Yapısı (TC İdari Teşkilatı), Bursa: Ekin Basın Yayın Dağıtım, 2018.

TC Sayıştay Başkanlığı, AYdın Adnan Menders Üniversitesi 2018 Yılı Sayıştay Denetim Raporu, https://www.sayistay.gov.tr/tr/Upload/62643830/files/raporlar/kid/2018/%C3%96zel_B%C3%BCt%C3%A7eli_%C4%B0dareler-A/AYDIN%20ADNAN%20MENDERES%20%C3%9CN%C4%B0VERS%C4%B0TES%C4%B0.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

“AKP’lilerin atama oyununa yargıdan ‘usulsüzlük’ yorumu,” Cumhuriyet daily news, 23 April 2019, http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turkiye/1358511/akplilerin-atama-oyununa-yargidan-usulsuzluk-yorumu.html (accessed 1 November 2019)

“Futbol Federasyonu’ndan “usulsüz atama” açıklaması: Mesleki tecrübe fakülteyi bitirince başlar!” 13 September 2019, https://t24.com.tr/haber/futbol-federasyonu-ndan-usulsuz-atama-aciklamasi-mesleki-tecrube-fakulteyi-bitirince-baslar,839294 (accessed 1 November 2019)

To what extent does the government improve its strategic capacity by changing the institutional arrangements of governing?

10
 9

The government improves its strategic capacity considerably by changing its institutional arrangements.
 8
 7
 6


The government improves its strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
 5
 4
 3


The government does not improve its strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
 2
 1

The government loses strategic capacity by changing its institutional arrangements.
Institutional Reform
5
According to Law 5018 on Public Financial Management and Control, all public institutions, including municipalities and special provincial administrations, must prepare strategic plans. All public bodies have designated a separate department for developing strategy and coordination efforts; however, these departments are not yet completely functional. Maximizing strategic capacity requires resources, expert knowledge, an adequate budget and a participatory approach. The government lacks sufficient personnel to meet the requirements of strategic planning, performance-based programs and activity reports. In this respect, several training and internship programs have been established.

Turkey still lacks a strategic framework for public administration reform, including public financial management. There are various planning documents and sectoral policy documents on different aspects of public administration reform, but the lack of political support hinders comprehensive reform efforts. An administrative unit with a legal mandate to coordinate, design, implement and monitor public administration reform has not yet been established. Within the scope of IPA funds, Turkey attempts to ensure effective strategic planning and risk management at the program level.

Citations:
European Commission, Turkey 2019 Report, Brussels, 29.5.2019, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-turkey- report.pdf (accessed 1 November 2019)

Cumhurbaşkanlığı Teşkilatı Hakkında Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi 1, http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180710-1.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018)

Stratejik Yönetimde Kapasite Geliştirme Teknik Destek Projesi Revize Edilmiş Taslak Boşluk Değerlendirme Raporu, http://www.sp.gov.tr/tr/html/54/Stratejik+Yonetimde+Kapasite+Gelistirme+Projesi, (accessed 1 November 2018)

Y. Üstüner and N. Yavuz, ” Turkey’s Public Administration Today: An Overview and Appraisal,” International Journal of Public Administration, 2017.
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