Interministerial Coordination


How extensively and effectively are digital technologies used to support interministerial coordination (in policy development and monitoring)?

The government uses digital technologies extensively and effectively to support interministerial coordination.
The Estonian government has pioneered a large-scale use of information technologies. The Information System for Legal Drafts (Eelnõude infosüsteem, EIS) is used to facilitate interministerial coordination and public consultations online. The EIS allows users to search documents currently under consideration, participate in public consultations and submit comments on draft bills. Draft bills are submitted to the government and parliament via the EIS.
Policymaking and policy monitoring are further supported by an interoperable data exchange platform X-Road, an integrated system that facilitates the exchange of data between different organizations and information systems. Over 900 enterprises and organizations use X-Road daily. X-Road is also the first data exchange platform in the world that allows data to be exchanged between countries automatically. Since June 2017, an automatic data exchange capability has been established between Estonia and Finland.
Finland is a global leader for information and communications technology, and the digitalization of public services was a key project in Sipilä’s government program. In line with this ambition, the government set out to digitalize internal administrative processes. The government administration department within the Prime Minister’s Office, which has a central role in interministerial coordination, has a special Information Management and ICT Division. The government plenary session adopted an electronic tool for session materials in 2015. Ministers follow the progress of decision-making at plenary sessions on tablet computers. Finland is ranked second overall in the European Union’s Digital Economy and Society Index (2021), and also holds third place with regard to digital public services.
“Inclusive and competent Finland – a socially, economically and ecologically sustainable society - Programme of Prime Minister Sanna Marin’s Government 2019,”
“Digital Economy and Society Index,”
Early in 2021, the government adopted the Electronic Governance 2021-2025 strategy, drawn up jointly by the Ministry for Digitalization and the Government IT Center (CTIE), with the aim of advancing e-government measures and enabling the transition to digital government.

The fundamental goals of digitalization are to facilitate the transition to an efficient paperless administration and to provide an IT environment that is conducive to new working methods reinforcing public confidence in online services operated by the state. Interoperability and standardization are among the key goals.

In the European Commission’s 2021 Digital Economy & Society Index (DESI), Luxembourg was ranked eighth out of 27 EU member states, with a score of 59.0.

The Luxembourg government has implemented the GouvCheck system, which ensures the verification of the authenticity of any official document issued in Luxembourg by using a QR code printed on the document, in real time and for free. Thus, it is extremely difficult to commit fraud by printing a fake QR code. To interpret the GouvCheck QR code, users need a smartphone or tablet with a camera, as well as the GouvCheck app, which can be downloaded from the Google Play Store or the Apple App Store. A wide range of documents are provided with a GouvCheck logo including: building permits, residence certificates, certificates of voter registration, criminal record certificates, welcome and integration contracts, certificates of life, hunting permits, fishing licenses, and the proof of payment for passports or identity cards.
Digital Economy & Society Index (2021). Accessed 14 January 2022.

“Electronic Governance 2021-2025’ strategy.” The Luxembourg Government (2021). Accessed 14 January 2022.
New Zealand
The New Zealand government has identified a coordinating unit for ICT deployment at the center of government, developed a strategy (2015 ICT strategy) for coordination across government levels in order to improve effectiveness, and introduced new bodies in charge of leading the digital transformation. In 2017, the portfolio of minister for government digital services was created. The government chief digital officer (GCDO) is the government functional lead for developing and improving digital infrastructure across government. The GCDO is supported by the Digital Government Partnership, which is a partnership of stakeholders from agencies across government to support the goal of a coherent, all-of-government digital system. It helps the GCDO and government chief data steward (GCDS) to develop and improve the digital and data system across government; ensures government is aligned with the government ICT strategy; and reviews and informs the strategy. The partnership is made up of a leadership group and four working groups that support the strategy as well as a chairs’ group, which bring together experts from across the different focus areas to provide support and advice to the leadership group. However, it is not absolutely clear how effective the use of digital technologies really is, especially with regard to interministerial coordination.
Government ministries use similar digital platforms and share a digital platform for publishing information online. Ministries use digital technologies to coordinate activities, but the specific digital platform used depends on the specific security needs. Governance in Norway is highly digitized, which creates efficiencies. However, there is growing awareness of and sensitivity to managing cyber risks and ensuring secure ICT systems.
South Korea
The South Korean government utilizes e-government software (the Policy Task Management System) to monitor the implementation of policies in real time. In the UN E-Government Survey 2020, Korea was ranked at second place internationally for the implementation of e-government mechanisms. Korea also ranks at the top of the OECD countries on the OECD’s OUR Data Index, which examines the issue of open, usable and reusable government data.
UN E-Government Survey 2020,
OECD OURdata Index: 2019
The government uses digital technologies in most cases and somewhat effectively to support interministerial coordination.
The president’s advisory ministry (Ministerio Secretaría General de la Presidencia, Segpres) and the Division for Digital Government support line ministries and respective services with digitalization, facilitating instruments and providing advice regarding the implementation of digital services. The implementation of the Digital Agenda 2020, released in 2015, has been continued by the current government of Sebastián Piñera. In general, and especially in comparison with other Latin American countries, the level of digitalization regarding public information and services in Chile is quite advanced.

Chile is trying to follow OECD recommendations to ensure consistency in the use of technology as an enabler for open government. To achieve this, public institutions have increasingly adopted digital tools and open-government agendas.

As indicated on the official government website, 70% of all administrative procedures (including both procedures between different public entities and state-to-citizen procedures) could be carried out digitally by the end of 2021. In addition, an online platform with the objective of strengthening communication between the Congress and citizens was established in June 2020. The platform provides updates on the progress of draft laws, public consultations and voting results.
On The implementation of the Digital Agenda 2020:
Chilean Government,, last accessed: 13 January 2022.

Digital Government (Gobierno Digital),, last accessed: 13 January 2022.

Chilean Virtual Congress website,, last accessed: 13 January 2022.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Digital Government in Chile, Strengthening the Institutional and Governance Framework, 2016,, last accessed: 13 January 2022.
Denmark ranks first in the European Commission’s Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) for 2021. The index summarizes indicators on Europe’s digital performance and preparedness for digital transformation. The index is based on connectivity, human capital, use of internet services, integration of digital technology, digital public services, the EU ICT sector and its R&D performance, and research and innovation. Digital public services are fairly advanced in Denmark, which offers digitalized tax reporting, digitalized social transfer claims, and digital contact to public institutions and agencies. The advanced state of digital transformation in the country proved helpful during the pandemic as many activities were not severely affected by physical containment restrictions or were easily shifted from a physical to a virtual platform (e.g., education/teaching).
European Commission, “The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), (Accessed 20 February 2022).

Ministry of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs, “Strategy for Denmark’s Digital Growth,” file:///C:/Users/Finn/Downloads/Digital%20growth%20strategy%20report_UK_WEB.pdf (accessed 4 October 2018).

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “The Danish Government presents ‘Digital Growth strategy,’ (Accessed 4 October 2018).

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Denmark once again the most digital country in the EU,” (Accessed 4 October 2018).

Per Byrge Sørensen, Forvaltningsret med et digitalt perspektiv. København: Karnov, 2017.
Until recently, collaboration between state institutions was generally well organized, but fragmented, and did not have an effective common platform for the exchange of documents between ministries. With the introduction of the TAP portal, the situation has improved significantly. The circulation of documents between the State Chancellery and line ministries now takes place online in a new high-quality form, making the process of document exchange more transparent and efficient.

Furthermore, the TAP portal has indirectly contributed to the increase in the use of e-signatures in public administration, as authentication within the closed environment of the TAP portal requires the use of an e-ID, e-signature or mobile e-signature.

A unified platform of state and local government websites has also been created. This platform is an information technology tool that can be used to create websites, and offers modern and easy-to-use platforms for state institutions and local governments based on uniform principles. This platform has raised the quality of digital communication in the public administration, as agencies can interact with citizens more efficiently.
Legislative Portal (TAP), Available at:, Last accessed: 10.01.2022

2. Cabinet of Ministers (2020) Unified platform for state and local government websites, Available (in Latvian) at:, Last accessed: 10.01.2022.

3. Digital Transformation Guidelines for 2021-2027 (2021) Available (in Latvian) at:, Last accessed: 10.01.2022.
Lithuanian authorities use digital technologies frequently quite effectively to support interministerial coordination during policy development and monitoring. Various document management systems track the execution of activities set out in the Government Program’s Action Plan and other documents, while the MIS (Monitoring Information System) supports the preparation of strategic (action) plans and budget programs. There are two systems and IT tools for monitoring the implementation of EU-financed and national interventions (the Structural Funds’ MIS and MIS). Also, there is a special information system that enables online cooperation among state institutions and external stakeholders in the negotiation of EU legislation, while a new system for the coordination of systemic projects is under development within the framework of managing government priorities.

Although Lithuanian authorities rely strongly on IT systems during interministerial coordination, the application of collaborative knowledge management tools (e.g., shared spaces and collaborative learning) is underdeveloped. New IT solutions are being developed centralizing support services in a newly established National Center of Shared Services that will provide accounting and personnel management services to more than 100 institutions associated with the central government. Digital technologies do support policy coordination, but their potential is not exploited for jointly improving policy content during policy formulation, or to take corrective management actions during policy-monitoring processes. Several new laboratories have been established (PolicyLAB and GovTech) that may promote the development of innovative digital solutions in the public sector.

In the E-Government Development Index, Lithuania was ranked 20th in the world in 2020, up 20 places compared to its 2018 ranking. In addition, in the 2019 International Civil Service Effectiveness (INCISE) index, Lithuania scored quite well in terms of digital services (eighth place among surveyed countries, which included high-income countries). Nevertheless, digital competencies and digital resources are still insufficient, as revealed in part by the challenges faced in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. The planned investments for economic transformation under the Recovery and Resilience Fund (2021 – 2026) include measures to further upgrade the use of IT and advance digitalization within the public administration.
United Nations, E-Government Development Index, 2019,
International Civil Service Effectiveness (INCISE) index, 2019,
In an effort to better coordinate the digitalization of public administration with the broader issue of digital transformation, the Cerar government transferred in 2016 competences for information society and electronic communication from the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport to the Ministry of Public Administration. This reorganization of responsibilities has yielded a more appropriate structure for the implementation of the 2016 “Digital Slovenia 2020” strategy and a more efficient use of the existing ICT infrastructure. One of the goals of the strategy is to further strengthen the use of digital technologies to support interministerial coordination. Even if implementation of the strategy slowed under the Šarec government, the Janša government has made digitalization one of the government’s key policy priorities, appointed a special minister for digital transformation (July 2021) and established the Government Office for Digital Transformation.
Government of Slovenia (2016): Digital Slovenia 2020: Development strategy for the information society until 2020. Ljubljana ( (2021): Mark Boris Andrijanič imenovan za ministra brez listnice, pristojnega za digitalno preobrazbo. Ljubljana (
Spain ranks ninth out of the 28 EU member states in the European Commission 2021 Digital Economy and Society Index. Spain’s performance was especially notable in the area of digital public services. Law 18/2015 on data reuse and data transparency has promoted a culture of open data within the public administration, and the public sector is quickly progressing with regard to the integration of digital technologies. In recent years, a number of laws updated procedures with the aim of exploring the potential of digital technologies and structures. Moreover, shared interdepartmental platforms (such as the Cl@ve platform) and shared services have been developed.
Under the terms of the Digitalization Plan for Public Administrations 2021 – 2025, all ministries are required to draft digital-transformation action plans. These are to include means of simplifying interdepartmental working procedures, the electronic exchange of information between administrative units, the issue of information classification, and the implementation of standards for the exchange of information. The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Digital Transformation (MINECO) is the governing body for digital administration, rationalization of information technologies and communications in the field of public administration. The implementation of the Digital Agenda 2025 will enable a technological leap forward in the digital transformation of interministerial coordination. In order to achieve this goal, Digital Spain 2025 envisages introducing a series of structural reforms in the 2020 – 2022 period, among them the development of “as-a-service” cognitive automation services for the administration, in order to improve the efficiency of processes.

Spain’s decentralized structure has created challenges in establishing a coherent and nationwide interministerial e-government coordination plan. However, Digital Agenda 2025 created a strategic framework for vertical interadministrative compatibility and coordination.
Gobierno de España (2021), Public Administrations Digitization Plan,

Gobierno de España (2021), Digital Spain Agenda 2025
The Government Digital Service (GDS), established in 2012, established standards for new digital services and promotes the government’s digital-by-default approach. GDS is also responsible for providing common technologies and services to departments for their digital services (e.g., the platform, and cross-government payments and notifications services). All government departments now have digital technology teams, which in some departments are also responsible for internal IT services for officials. Publishing all government digital material on the single platform (at UK level, covering England, but separately for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) has been a valuable consolidation.

An assessment in 2017 by Daniel Thornton of the Institute for Government provided qualified support to government efforts to achieve more digital coordination. A report by the Public Accounts Committee on the progress of the government’s Verify program (intended to ease digital access for citizens by simplifying verification of their identity) was scathing about the failures of implementation and lack of progress. Comprehensive digitalization of NHS data remains a major challenge, but was given a significant impetus by the pandemic, including the creation of effective platforms for booking vaccinations and recording test results.

During the coronavirus pandemic, digital technology greatly facilitated effective responses by all parts of government to the crisis. While many new services were delivered in record time and the work of central government continued with only minor problems, there were a number of high-profile failures, not least abortive first attempts to establish a contact-tracing app. There were also problems with algorithms used to calibrate school exam results based mainly on teacher assessments. These arose first in Scotland, which has an earlier exam timetable, making it all the more inexplicable that lessons were not learned when it came to a similar exercise in England.

As the GDS enters its second decade, the service has set out a number of ambitions, not the least of which is to create a single online identity to overcome what has been described in a blog article as systems “designed, developed and operated in departmental silos, with a focus only on meeting each department’s needs.”
Alex Allan review:
The U.S. government invests heavily in technology, although it is not a world leader in e-government. The multiple intelligence agencies are sometimes criticized as prone to hording intelligence information, rather than sharing it within the intelligence community. Reforms adopted in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks have increased the sharing of information among the intelligence agencies.

Apart from intelligence issues, problems of coordination generally arise from political forces that promote agency autonomy and response to specialized constituencies, not from deficiencies in communication technology.
Over the last several years, the U.S. government has developed several collaborative digital services that can help federal agencies use data and technology to achieve their goals and cooperate more effectively. The Joint Venture Program (JVP), for example, assists agencies in developing and implementing innovative ways to collect, connect, access or use federal data and data services.
Government departments and agencies have historically developed information systems independently to meet their own particular needs. There has, however, been growing emphasis on interoperability, recognizing the efficiency gains in implementing policy and more generally running government, and the benefits of cross-agency data sharing. Notable in this regard is the Digital Transformation Agency, which was established in 2015 to help government departments and agencies undergo digital transformation, and now has central oversight of the government’s ICT agenda.

Common standards for data security have been developed by the Australian Signals Directorate, although not all agencies are (yet) fully compliant with these standards.
Digital Transformation Agency:
Information Security Manual:
The 2014 – 2020 e-government strategy and the State e-Government Agency, established in 2016, aim to improve interministerial communication through the use of digital technologies. The necessary infrastructure for electronic document flows and communication between ministries exists and is increasingly used.

A minister of digitalization was created in 2021. The individual appointed to the position has experience working with the executive as a former advisor to the government. The section on digitalization within the Recovery and Resilience Plan is well written and the process seems to have the proper budgetary support.
The effective control exercised by cabinet over the ministries mostly obviates the need for elaborate technical means of coordination. That said, the government created Shared Services Canada (SSC) in 2011, which is mandated to provide a unified IT infrastructure for the federal government that is modern, secure and reliable. SSC delivers email, data center, network and workplace technology device services to all government departments and agencies in a consolidated and standardized manner. The common IT program and platform naturally enables improved and secure information, and data sharing across all government agencies.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the consolidation of IT infrastructure through SSC has not gone smoothly, and the department has been criticized for slow service delivery and for putting some federal agencies at risk. The federal government has been unsuccessful in the implementation of two major digital technologies, the Phoenix payroll system and the government-wide email reorganization. A recent PBO report stated that a functional pay system would not be operational until 2023 and costs for revamping the system could tally to CAD 2.6 billion. These failures cast serious doubt on the ability of the federal government to make effective use of digital technologies.

However, as the pandemic has shown, government services were able to support the move to virtual work by federal government employees, as well as the enormous demands placed on the system given the rollout of new programming. A fuller evaluation of this period will be needed going forward.
Shared Services Canada, Departmental Results Report: 2019-2020, 2020,

Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer, Costs Associated with Replacing the Federal Pay System, May 16 2019,

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat 2018/19: Digital Operations Strategic Plan: 2018-2022,
France is doing comparatively well in terms of digital government according to a recent OECD (2020) study. Overall, the country receives above-average scores and is ranked 10th among the OECD countries, outperforming countries including Estonia, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden.
In 2011, an interministerial Directorate for State Information Systems and Communication was established. In 2014, in order to strengthen its capacity to steer and influence the sectoral administrations, the directorate was placed under the authority of the prime minister. A further impulse has been given to the directorate by the Macron administration’s emphasis on the dimensions of the technological revolution. A secretariat of state was created in May 2018 (Secrétariat d’État au Numérique) tasked with boosting initiatives and development in the private and public sector and setting up a 100% state digital platform by 2022. Similarly, the president’s economic adviser suggested that nearly €10 billion of additional funding be allocated to the digitalization of public services (with half of this sum for the healthcare system). In parallel, a report of the Court of Accounts, in support of past actions, recommended a major effort to improve investment and personnel training. The new secretariat is building on these actions with the view of providing users with a single identification number that would provide access to all public services. Several experiences have already been quite successful. For example, the digitalization of tax declarations, processes and payments has been so successful that for most taxpayers the use of printed documents is no longer possible. Various efforts to improve coordination between administrations have been implemented. For instance, public procurement processes which involve several administrations have been streamlined, and private companies can access the system using their registration number. While there is a lack of systematic international comparisons, it seems that France currently has less invested than the United Kingdom in this area, and processes in some sectors (e.g., the management of Defense Ministry staff or the delivery of driving licenses) have suffered major failings in past years. According to the OECD index, France was ranked 10th in 2019 and fifth among the European countries.
OECD, 2020: OECD Digital Government Index (DGI) 2019, available at
Since the change in government in 2019, there has been a vast improvement in the use of digital technologies in government. The Prime Minister’s Office in Greece (the Presidency of Government) started using modern information and communication technologies to monitor government mechanisms much more than in the past. The Special Secretariat of Integrated Information Systems was established within that office, and is tasked with digitizing the coordination and evaluation of government work.

Τhe Presidency of Government was aided by the new Ministry of Digital Governance, also established after the change in government. The new ministry spread the use of digital technologies across the government. The ministry aims to achieve interoperability between state records systems, enabling different agencies to “talk” to each other and share information. The lockdown and movement restriction measures taken in 2020–2021 vastly limited face-to-face interactions among civil servants from different ministries. In brief, the management of the COVID-19 pandemic gave further impetus to digital interministerial coordination.

Moreover, there is policy coordination with regard to the implementation of a few transversal policies, such as public procurement. The latter is now managed by a national system of public procurement (EAADHSY). This system functions through an appropriately developed digital platform for tenders, and applications from suppliers of goods and services interested in serving the public sector.
The new “Special Secretariat of Integrated Information Systems” was established by Law 4622/2019. Its place in the government is shown at official website

The digital platform for public procurement, covering all ministries and agencies of the public sector, is available at

Τhe website of the Ministry of Digital Governance is available at
The government uses digital technologies in most cases and this appears to provide effective interministerial coordination. Throughout 2020 and 2021, “incorporeal” (i.e., remote) cabinet meetings were held online in keeping with prevailing public health and social distancing measures.

Ireland is perceived to lag behind other highly developed EU member states in the effort to digitize government services. In early 2022, a new digital strategy – The Digital Ireland Framework – was introduced with the aim of driving and enabling digital change across Irish economic and social life. It includes elements designed to drive digital transformation within the government, an ambition also served by the Irish plan for distribution of Next Generation EU funds.
Government of Ireland (2022) ‘Launch of Harnessing Digital’, 1 February 2022,
The use of digital technologies in Malta has now become widespread both to support interministerial coordination and for client use. The government is determined to make full use of digital technologies, including blockchain. A total of €40 million have been earmarked for the digitalization of public services over the next five years. Individual government ministries can access policies by other ministries that may touch on their own policy formulation, as well as any policies that come from the cabinet.
Each government ministry has its own information management unit (IMU), The IMU’s primary role is to ensure that the information technology used is aligned with the ministry’s strategic priorities. IMUs are also involved in applying government-wide policies, standards and protocols aimed at ensuring that IT systems are mutually compatible and secure, and that staff members understand and adhere to government policies and procedures.
All CIOs are a part of a CIO Forum chaired by the permanent secretary (strategy and implementation) within the Prime Minister’s Office. Various topics and issues are discussed during the monthly meetings. However, the CIO Forum also serves as a venue in which ideas and projects can be shared across ministries. This serves as a platform for CIOs to unite their efforts toward achieving a digitalized public administration.
In 2017, a total of 21 mobile apps for government services were launched. Moreover, the website went live, offering access to about 800 services and the associated forms. The public website was also launched to disseminate information and news about the country’s public services. The 2019 Ombudsman report focused on efforts to upgrade this technology in such a way as to facilitate the monitoring of ministries. The 2021 audit report on IT assets recommended improving the integration of IT systems across ministries, ceasing the duplication of data, producing more detailed inventories of the location of IT assets (since work from home had increased) and making better use of the application of best practices. The report concludes, “The work being done by the IMUs, to assess future needs and optimize the utilization of IT assets was not being carried out at department level. … once there is a single integrated asset management system in place for all the ministries and departments, the task force can then assess how this data can: assist in the optimization of daily action and operations.” Malta’s reputation as a front-runner in this field within the European Union was acknowledged by the European Commission in its most recent Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), which stated that Malta has already fulfilled the 2025 gigabit society objectives.
Nov 2021- IT Audit: IT Asset Management across Government Ministries and Departments – download
The Federal Council has developed a strategy for information and communication technology in the Federal Administration. It uses digital technologies effectively to support interministerial coordination. The development and use of IT in the Federal Administration has, however, experienced challenges with regard to efficiency and the appropriate use of fiscal resources. For example, the development of software for use in tax policy and administration has been heavily criticized by the Swiss Federal Audit Office.

As for the cantons, Schmid et al. developed a digitalization index for each canton and found that a high level of e-government and digitalization can be found in cantons with strong financial resources (i.e., wealthy inhabitants and a strong economy). The cantons of St. Gallen, Aargau, Zug and Neuenburg score highest in this index.

In cross-national comparison, Switzerland receives medium to low scores on e-government issues. The European Commission’s e-Government Benchmark 2021 report, which examines progress in the digitalization of administration, has been summarized by the government in the following way:

“Despite the increase in overall performance, Switzerland still ranks low (in international comparison):

“With an overall performance of 52.3% (EU 67.9%), Switzerland ranks a low 32nd out of 36, down from 49.9% (EU 62%) two years ago … Switzerland also compares poorly with neighboring countries that also have a federal structure, such as Austria (84.1%) and Germany (62.1%) … When it comes to the use of basic services, the majority of European countries are significantly more advanced than Switzerland (CH 34%; EU 65.2%). Switzerland has not yet established a state-recognized e-ID that can be used for digital identification in the processing of e-services. Pre-filled forms with data from sources such as basic registers (authentic sources) exist in only 12% (+4%) of the e-services examined (EU: 61.5%). Automatically pre-filled forms with data that the authorities already have from certain sources would significantly reduce the effort for the user (no multiple entries, “once-only” principle) and the administration (increase in data quality).

“In the area of transparency of e-services, Switzerland continues to develop (+3.5%) and is approaching the benchmark average (CH 43.8%; EU 64.3%). In terms of the traceability of service provision (completion of forms until receipt of the service), Switzerland is clearly behind the EU average (62%) at around 22%. The report places a great deal of emphasis on information regarding deadlines for the provision of benefits. Here, Switzerland performs poorly. Switzerland has made progress (approx. +10%) in terms of transparency with regard to the personal data used by the authorities. Users can manage their personal data themselves in around 42% of the e-services examined.

“The report shows that Swiss authorities need to improve, especially in citizen-related online services (marriage, birth, death, work, study, etc.). Here, basic services are missing, such as pre-filled forms, or the process of handling services is not transparent. Swiss authorities are more progressive when it comes to business-related services and information, such as starting a business.

“In the area of user-centeredness, Switzerland can keep up with the EU average. About 80% (EU: 87.2%) of the government services and information examined are available online on government websites. Almost nine out of 10 of the websites surveyed also offer online support, help functions and feedback mechanisms and are mobile-enabled.” (

Schmid, J., Urben, M., & Vatter, A. (2018). Cyberföderalismus in der Schweiz: Befunde zur Digitalisierung kantonaler Verwaltungen. Yearbook of Swiss Administrative Sciences, 9(1), 12–24. DOI:

The Federal Public Service for Information & Communication Technology (FEDICT) is responsible for defining and implementing an e-governance strategy. However, this agency focuses primarily on government-to-citizen (G2C) and government-to-business (G2B) communication, while government-to-government (G2G) interactions seem to be largely overlooked. Furthermore, the federal structure of the state does not help the sharing common IT programs or platforms, as every government level is responsible for its own digital infrastructure.

Overall, there is still much to improve, as Belgium is faring increasingly poorly in international comparison. The U.N. E-Government Survey 2020 ranked Belgium 41st out of 193 U.N. member countries in its E-Government Development Index (EGDI – a 22-position drop in comparison with four years earlier), making it the 26th country among the 33 European countries.
In general, Germany has been slow to adopt e-governance mechanisms. One of the projects to push e-government in federal ministries and agencies is the “E-Akte Bund” (federal e-files) (BMI 2021). The project aims to connect about 100 institutions and some 150,000 employees to the e-file system by 2024. Connecting the Chancellery – with its high-level security needs for classified documents – to the system in the spring of 2022 marked a significant milestone. The use of the e-file system will help facilitate interministerial coordination as it is rolled out within the line ministries.
BMI (2021): Start der E-Akte Bund im Bundeskanzleramt, Meldung, Schwerpunktthema: Moderne Verwaltung, Datum: 27.04.2021,;jsessionid=3733669ADB476255D39BC732388F2944.1_cid287 (accessed: 15 January 2022).
As the government has sought to enhance the competitiveness of the Hungarian government through technological modernization, the newly created Ministry of Innovation and Technology (ITM) has set more ambitious goals with respect to digitalization. Moreover, the oligarchs around the government have realized new business opportunities and have purchased firms in this field, especially with regard to EU transfers in the next Multinational Financial Framework. However, the use of digital technologies for interministerial coordination has just begun.
The Israeli Government ICT Authority was created in 2012 and placed under the Prime Minister’s Office in 2015. In 2013, it introduced the Digital Israel program to assist government communication with the public by improving the digitalization of government offices. The initiative aims to strengthen public engagement through a series of websites and online forms, and improve coordination between public, domestic and international NGO, academic, and government actions.

The authority also plans to digitize all services provided by the government and interministerial services. For example, 880 out of 960 forms, which were previously unavailable online, are now available online for public and interministerial use. This in turn facilitates better cooperation and coordination between government offices, as it minimizes bureaucratic work and provides a widely accessible platform for government offices.
“Annual report 61 for the year 2010: Treatment of prolonged interministerial disagreements,” The State Comptroller office website (Hebrew)

Approval of the national digital plan, promotion of the “Digital Israel” national initiative and the reform of government decisions,

Blander, Dana and Ben Nur, Gal, “Governmental coalitions: A steering mechanism in the political system,” in The political system in Israel 2013:ספרים-ומאמרים/הוצאה-לאור/הספרים/הספרייה-לדמוקרטיה/המערכת-הפוליטית-בישראל (Hebrew).

“Coalition management,” the Knesset website (Hebrew):

Headquarters for the National Digital Israel Initiative, Ministry of Social Equality, 2018 (Hebrew):

KATEF – The Knesset Unit for the Coordination of Parliamentary Oversight, The Knesset (Hebrew): 2018,

National Initiative “Digital Israel,” Decision No. 1046 of the Cabinet, PMO Office, 2013 (Hebrew):

OECD report: The government has taken extensive steps to reduce regulation, Ynet news, 2018 (Hebrew):,7340,L-5310465,00.html

PMO Office, Open Government Years 2018-2019 Work Plan, 2018,

PMO Office, Israel Government ICT – Activity for the year 2019, 2019,

Rivlin, Reuven, “The intellectual independency of the Knesset member: the limit of the coalition obligation,” The Israel Democracy Institute (December 2010) (Hebrew).

The end of the fax era? A new headquarters in the Prime Minister’s Office will promote a digital vision for Israel, The Marker 2013 (Hebrew):

The ICT Authority Strategical Work plan for 2016-2018,

The Government Coordination Guide, Version 1, 2013,
The Mexican government has adopted a National Digital Strategy and established a Change Management Plan in order to guide agencies in the development of projects. Furthermore, the Executive Council Interministerial Commission for e-Government Development (Comison Intersecretarial para el Desarrollo del Gobierno Electronico, CIDGE) has ensured the technical and operational coordination necessary to implement the strategy.
However, as for many projects in Mexico, the implementation of digitalization is falling behind schedule, especially on the subnational level and between different regions and/or cities with different financial and personal capacities. This is a reflection if the heterogeneity of digitalization in particular, and of modernization overall within the broader Mexican society.
SDG 2018. Mexico’s SDG Portal Brings Functionality to Reporting.

OECD Digital Government Studies Digital Government in Mexico Sustainable and Inclusive Transformation: Sustainable and Inclusive Transformation, OECD 2020.
The PiS government has been eager to increase digitalization in the country and use digital technologies to support interministerial coordination (European Commission 2021). On entering office, the PiS government established a separate Ministry of Digital Affairs. In the course of the government reshuffle in October 2020, when the number of ministries was reduced from 20 to 14, the ministry was merged with the Chancellery of the Prime Minister, which since then has continued its mission and pending activities with regard to digital development. Despite some shortcomings, the ministry succeeded in improving internet access and the use of digital technologies in public administration and the government.
European Commission (2021): Digital Public Administration factsheet 2021. Poland. Brussels (
There is a unit responsible for providing technological support to the government, the Centro de Gestão da Rede Informática do Governo (Ceger).

This has a central remit to manage the government’s IT network (Rede Informática do Governo, RInG). The information on Ceger’s website indicates that there were 34 people working in this service in August 2020.

Ceger’s services involve basic IT support (e.g., government email, internet access, data protection).

It also has as a remit to provide technological support for cabinet and junior minister meetings, while decree-law 16/2002 stipulates that it should develop common information networks and decision support systems for government.

However, the actual implementation of the latter is ongoing. The existing evidence is anecdotal, but suggests that the full potential of these technologies is as yet unrealized for policy development and monitoring. An indicator of this is that it is not uncommon for ministers to use their own devices (or not to use any device at all) at cabinet meetings.
CEGER, Mapa do Pessoal, available online at:
The digitalization of the Swedish public sector has come a rather long way. One exceptional example is the budget process (one of the key mechanisms to support coordination among government departments), where documents are digitally shared and simultaneously developed among various departments. The government also uses digital services to coordinate interdepartmental responses to communications from the EU. Overall, however, digitalization is mainly used to support intraorganizational processes such as drafting documents and only to a lesser extent to support interdepartmental coordination.

The Swedish government now communicates all new legislation and regulations (SFS) digitally, with digital versions given legal precedence over printed versions as they are the most current versions of legislation.

Digitalization has been implemented more extensively at the agency level. For instance, there is now a joint service center (SSC) that manages back-office functions for a growing number of agencies. Also, statistical material and maps are shared digitally among agencies.
The Office of Digital Transformation, which is affiliated with the Presidency, is entitled to lead public policies and strategies targeting digital transformation and e-government. It is also tasked with communicating the delivery of services, improving inter-agency cooperation and coordination in these areas, all in accordance with the goal set by the president.

No information is available concerning mechanisms facilitating interministerial coordination. However, the closed “kamunet” network for more secure data exchange between public institutions and organizations has been established as part of an effort to reduce cybersecurity risks.

Turkey is a member of the e-Europe+ initiative, while the e-Transformation Turkey Project was introduced by a prime ministerial circular of December 2003. In 2004, e-government applications were introduced into public administration following the adoption of e-signatures. In 2008, a prime ministerial circular stated that the electronic document management standards and registered electronic mail (KEP) projects were being implemented
Tamtürk, E. (2017). Kamu Yönetiminde Elektronik Belge Yönetim Sistemi. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(3), 851-863.
The government uses digital technologies to a lesser degree and with limited effects to support interministerial coordination.
Austria has no particular tradition of digitalized interministerial coordination or, if Austria does, little is known about it. However, as in other countries, the coronavirus pandemic became a powerful “digitalization catalyst.” Ever since early 2020, Austrian ministers and ministries have used Zoom and other digital instruments/formats to host regular interministerial exchanges. According to the OECD Digital Government Index 2019, Austria ranks slightly below average, but better than many of its western European peers (e.g., Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden and Germany).

OECD Digital Government Index, available at:
The digitalization of public administration is an undisputed goal of the government, but has not proceeded smoothly. The Croatian government established the Central State Office for the Development of the Digital Society in 2016. One of the basic tasks of the Office has been to bundle the existing 28 different digitalization strategies within an umbrella strategy that allows for the co-funding of initiatives from EU funds in the next Multiannual EU Financial Framework for the years 2021 – 2027.
According to a 2021 European Commission report, Croatia has implemented the principles of the European Interoperability Framework well or at a medium level.
However, the effective use of digital technologies in government and administration is still hindered by fragmentation and the tendency to subject such issues to laborious bureaucratic processes in organizational siloes. As a result, digital technologies do not play a major role in interministerial coordination.
The digitalization of state administration featured prominently in the Babiš government’s manifesto. In 2018, the government approved the Digital Czech Republic program, which aimed to advance the digitalization of the country. The implementation of the program started slowly, but has gained pace during the COVID-19 pandemic. New legislation on banking identity or the right to digital services has shifted a significant proportion of communication between the state and citizens to the digital sphere. Public authorities have expanded the use of online platforms and interactive digital forms. At the same time, progress with using digital technologies to support interministerial coordination has been limited.
The promotion of digitalization within public administration is one of the main goals of the Draghi government. The process for the creation of a national cloud service to be used by the public sector was launched with law decree n. 77 of May 2021, and a new mechanism of digital monitoring and coordination of governmental activities (REGIS) was established by a decree of the president of the council in September 2021. It is, however, too early to evaluate how efficient implementation will be.
for the law decree n. 77 see: (accessed 29 January 2021)
for the REGIS system see: (accessed 29 January 2021)
Although it may safely be assumed that well-known digital technologies like WhatsApp and Signal are used in Dutch interministerial coordination, digitalization designed specifically for interministerial coordination appears absent or is unknown. Like in ICT use across government in general, different departments use different systems whose interoperability is low or absent. Although the Legis project aspires to a more integrated ICT approach in the Dutch legislative system, results have been poor. For example, it is impossible as a non-insider to trace progress in legislative work on a particular bill, let alone to have an overview of all bills in preparation. Digitalization in legislation and interministerial coordination in the Netherlands clearly lags behind that in the United Kingdom or Finland.

In 2019, two important leaders in the push for improved ICT use within governmental departments resigned, and there are severe disagreements between the political and administrative levels of the Department of Internal Affairs and the leadership of the ICT Assessment Bureau, which was established in 2015 to coordinate ICT projects and contain cost overruns.

Responding to concerns voiced by the Council of State, the Rathenau Institute and the Scientific Council for Government Policy (WRR), the December 2021 coalition agreement creates a minister for digital affairs. This figure will focus on the uses of algorithms in decision-making relating to policy designs, legislative work, jurisprudence and implementation practices.
W. Voermans et al., 2012. Legislative processes in transition. Comparative study of the legislative processes in Finland, Slovenia and the UK as a source of inspiration for enhancing the efficiency of the Dutch legislative process, Leiden University ((open, accessed 31 October 2018)

Tweede Kamer, vergaderjaar 2014-5, 33 326, nr. 5, Eindrapport onderzoek naar ICT projecten bij de overheid (accessed 4 November 2018)

Trouw, 15 May 2019. De ICT-projecten bij de overheid zijn nog steeds een chaos. (, accessed 8 November 2019)

Rathenau Instituut, November 5, 2021. Deskundigen in de Eerste Kamer over AI bij overheidsbesluitvorming.

WRR, November 11, 2021. WRR-rapport nr. 105: Opgave AI. De nieuwe systeemtechnologie.

Raad van State, June 28, 2021. Publicatie Raad van State over digitalisering in wetgeving en bestuursrechtspraak.
Cyprus ranks 21 in the European Union for DESI indicators, below the EU average. The Recovery and Resilience Plan dedicates significant funds for digitalization. It is expected that the new Deputy Ministry for Research and Digital Development will contribute to accelerating change.
At present, digital technology covers a small spectrum of government work and activities, while the percentage of public services delivered digitally increased from 40% in 2016 to 62% in 2021. An ERP system, which has been in development since 2018, is expected to be operational in 2022, facilitating inter-service work in accounting, payroll, pensions, budgeting and human resource management. No information is available about a comprehensive digital interministerial system.
1. European Commission, The Digital Economy and Society Index 2021, Cyprus
Digital technologies designed for interministerial coordination and broader government-to-government (G2G) services are not at the core of Japan’s e-government initiative. Rather, the focus of e-government policies is on the creation and use of e-platforms that enable citizens to interact with the various levels of government more effectively and efficiently (G2C). This approach was confirmed in the Digital Government Action Plan released in 2018, in which G2G models do not play a prominent role.

Recent public discussion has focused on how to properly use official email services and other features such as shared folders. Quite a few civil servants, including senior ones, consider such technologies to be cumbersome. More importantly, these critics seem concerned that emails will be stored as public documents, a fact that might result in the emergence of unwelcomed evidence in the case of scandal, based on the requirements and disclosure rules of the Public Records and Archives Management Act and the Information Disclosure Law. Given this perspective, it is doubtful that G2G technologies will gain much momentum among senior ministry officials.

In 2020, Prime Minister Suga launched an initiative to complete the digitalization of the government by 2025 and created the Digital Agency in September 2021 to facilitate the process. The current Kishida administration appears thus far to be continuing this digitalization initiative.
Leading administrative reform under premise of digitalization, METI Journal in the Japan Times, 11 January 2019,

Bureaucrats reveal that most official emails are not kept properly, The Mainichi, 15 January 2018,

New Digital Agency Pursues Inclusive Digitalization, Government of Japan, 16 September 2021,
Slovakia lags behind most EU member states with regard to digitalization (European Commission 2021). The new government has announced its intent to close that gap. In April 2020, the office of the deputy prime minister for investments and informatization was transformed into the Ministry of Investments, Regional Development and Informatization. In Slovakia’s recovery plan, however, digitalization has not featured very prominently, and digital technologies have continued to play only a limited role in interministerial coordination.
European Commission (2021): Digital Public Administration Factsheet 2021. Slovakia. Brussels ( -observatory/digital-public-administration-factsheets-2021).
No digital technologies are used to support policy coordination across or within government ministries. In the Prime Minister’s Office, there is the Office of Policy Matters (Skrifstofa stefnumála), which to some extent coordinates key issues between ministries. This office also coordinates national economic and monetary policy, manages labor market communications, and monitors cabinet policy, future developments and the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The most recent institutions to be attached to this office are Iceland’s central bank (Seðlabankinn) and Statistics Iceland (Hagstofa Íslands).

Things are moving toward increasing digitalization since the first policy on public digital services was published in 2021, which set out a framework for the projects that are being worked on. The policy includes goals for increasing competitiveness, improving public services, and developing safer infrastructure and a more modern work environment.
Organization (Skipulag), Accessed 22 December 2018.

Samantekt um tæknilega innviði og rafræna þjónustu hins opinbera. Accessed 23 December 2021.
The 2014 National Strategy on Digital Agenda for Romania explicitly called on the public sector to embrace and optimize the use of digital technology for improving effectiveness in governance. This commitment was further buttressed through the establishment of a Government Chief Information Officer within the chancellery. In July 2018, the government announced plans to spend €45 million on the development of a government cloud framework to be used by all public institutions in the country. However, similar plans were announced in 2014 and 2017 without substantial results. Indeed, a 2018 report on government digitalization ranked Romania 67th out of 193 countries and last among 28 EU member states, and also noted that Romania implemented only one-fourth of all commitments it assumed in 2014. To date, the role actually played by digital technologies in interministerial coordination has been limited.

While there have not been any notable developments in 2020 or 2021, Romania’s Recovery and Resilience Plan, endorsed by the European Commission in 2021, commits €1.5 billion to digitalizing public administration. This should support the digitalization of interministerial coordination.
Ministry for the Information Society (2018): National Strategy on Digital Agenda for Romania. Bucharest (

European Commission (2021): Factsheet on Romania’s Recovery and Resilience Plan. Brussels. (
The government makes no substantial use of digital technologies to support interministerial coordination.
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